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Australia Country Information

Australian Representative:
Serene Lin-Stephens
The Office of the Pro Vice-Chancellor Learning and Teaching
Macquarie University

August 2021 Australian Report

Covid disaster payments (since June 2021): expenditure to date over $827 million

Policy direction- towards a balanced spread of uni and VET study destinations (Figure on the right)

Looking to the Future: Report of the Review of senior secondary pathways into work, further education and training (Department of Education, Skills and Employment, Australia Government)

Latest employment data (reference period June 2021)

Unemployment rate decreased to 4.9%, Underemployment rate increased to 7.9%

Participation rate remained at 66.2%, Total vacancies (May) were 362,500 (an increase of 23.5% from Feb)

Food for thought: Barriers to labour force participation (latest date: 2018-2019 financial year)

Of the 2.7 million people who wanted a job or preferred to work more hours, most (2.3 million) were available to start within 4 weeks.

Those who not available to start a job or work with more hours within four weeks- the main reasons were:

  • Women: "Caring for children" (48%)
  • Men: "Long term sickness or disability" (32%)

Useful Resources: Nowcast of Employment by Region and Occupation (NERO)

Upcoming events:

May 2021 Australia Report

  • $90 billion JobKeeper wage subsidy ended on 28th March 2021
  • 17,000 UNI jobs lost to COVID-19

April employment data

  • Unemployment rate decreased to 5.6%, Underemployment rate decreased to 7.9%
  • Participation rate increased to 66.3%, Increased job vacancies of 13.7% from Nov 2020

Australian Skills Classification NEW! sets out the key core competencies, specialist tasks and technology tools required for 600 occupations in Australia. It complements the Australian and New Zealand Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO).

Four industries will contribute to 62.1% of total employment growth by 2024


  • Healthcare and Social Assistance
  • Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
  • Education and Training
  • Construction

National Careers Week 17-23 May 2021

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February 2021 Australia Report

National - International

  1. K-12 School Year commenced on 28 January 30
  2. VET Term 1 starts 1 February
  3. University Semester 1 starts end of February

Students are returning to in-school face to face classes.

New National Skills Commission Report – The shape of Australia’s post COVID-19 workforce

The shape of Australia’s post COVID-19 workforce builds on the understanding of Australia’s workforce and skills recovery from COVID-19.

The report analyses the impact of the pandemic on our labour market, through scenario modelling, and profiles our resilient occupations framework.

While it is clear COVID-19 has changed how we do business and work, the latest ABS data show signs that the labour market is recovering. This is supported by the NSC’s own monitoring of internet vacancies and our own employer surveys.

Productivity Commission, National Agreement for Skills and Workforce Development Review, Study Report    

A skilled workforce is fundamental to Australia’s future. As a pillar of our post-school education system, the vocational education and training (VET) system enables people to develop and maintain the skills needed to participate effectively in society and the economy.

VET is a shared area of responsibility between the Federal, State and Territory governments. The National Agreement for Skills and Workforce Development (NASWD) defines the framework for intergovernmental collaboration in VET.

The Government has asked the Commission to review progress against the targets, outcomes and performance indicators in the NASWD and to assess whether it is still an effective long-term framework for intergovernmental cooperation on VET policy. The final has now been released.

Career guidance policy and practice in the pandemic: results of a joint international survey

This report, recently published through CEDEFOP, captures changes in career guidance policies, systems and practices arising from the Covid-19 pandemic, as observed across 93 countries globally between the end of June and the beginning of August 2020.

The research shows that career guidance systems received some policy attention and increased funding in several countries enabling them to adapt from mainly physical to mainly online services, and enabling easier distance access to services. There was increased cooperation among career guidance practitioners and with other professionals.

Increased demand for services was noted, especially from school students, the unemployed, and workers most at risk of unemployment. Respondents highlighted the need for individualised services, given the uncertainty created by the pandemic: career counselling, coaching, mentoring, and psychosocial support. But problems of access to services exist, especially for persons with disabilities, migrants and refugees, and the pandemic has made it more difficult for these groups to access services.


Meetings, networking events and webinars commence from February.


The National Careers Institute (NCI) was established to ensure people have access to authoritative and accurate careers information and support irrespective of their age or career stage. People can visit the Your Career website to be connected to further education, training or work options to support their career needs or goals.

Parents and Guardians 'Facebook Live' event – 2 Feb

Parents/guardians of 2020 school leavers, and of young people not sure of their education, training or work options, can attend a live Facebook information session.

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October 2020 Australia Report

The COVID 19 situation has been very different across the states and territories, with Melbourne the most affected by a strong second wave. Restrictions have been slowly relaxing – all schools are back, universities online, home office rules, etc.
Key statistics - Seasonally adjusted estimates for September 2020

  • Unemployment rate 6.9%
  • Underemployment rate increased to 11.4%
  • Participation rate decreased to 64.8%

Thousands of university students will graduate this year into the worst jobs market since the 1990s recession, as economists warn it could take them years to rebound from lower wages.


CICA joins the CRC Longevity initiative as an Industry Partner (

The Australia-wide, collaborative CRC Longevity brings together industry, government and researchers to deliver deep insights that drive innovation in new services, products and policies for older Australians. It will be guided by the needs and wants of individuals and communities, providing industry and government with hard evidence to support investment, and lead to approximately $33 billion in annual economic opportunity by 2030, increasing GDP, exports and growth in high value employment for Australians, and positioning Australia as a leader in the global longevity economy.

CICA represents the industry at a Productivity Commission Roundtable

The Productivity Commission released its interim report on the National Agreement for Skills and Workforce Development Review. As part of its consultation program, the Commission invited CICA as a key stakeholder CICA representing the views of the career industry including the voice of the member associations and their members, to attend a roundtable on aspects of a User-centered Model in Vocational Education and Training.

The National Careers Institute launched the next version of its website! (

This version makes it easier to navigate the site to discover top career advice from across Australia

Interest in Micro-Credentials

Everyone, even governments, seem to be excited about micro-credentials. What are they and why is there so much interest? In the latest Career Panorama blog post,Emeritus Professor Beverley Oliver explores whether they really can help careers flourish post-COVID, and if so, what learners should look for. To read the post, click here

CDAA & CICA Webinars



  • Communicating Through Active Engagement – Dr Norman Amundson and Andrea Fruhling – University of British Columbia
  • We can’t all be at the top of the ladder: Problems with social mobility as an outcome of career guidance – Professor Tristram Hooley
  • Helping People live with Chaos in their Careers – Professor Jim Bright

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July 2020 Australia Report


Australian states have very different COVID-19 situation at present 

  • Western Australia, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Northern Territory have very low numbers and have cautiously re-started their economy and educational institutions. The two most populous states, New South Wales and Victoria have bigger numbers of infection.
  • Melbourne, the capital of Victoria is currently in a 6-week Stage 3 lockdown due to a second wave, with high number of community transmission ( 300-400+/day).

Only kindergartens and childcare centres are open, schools went back to remote learning, with the exception of Year 12 students and children of emergency and essential workers and children at risk.  Universities commence semester 2 ( end of July) via their digital platforms.

Unemployment increased 69,300 to 992,300 people - 7.1% currently, likely to grow

Government stimulus measures    JobKeeper  - JobSeeker - JobMaker

The Australian Labour Market Information Portal: new publications of data and research insights, including more information relating to the labour market impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • Jobs in Demand Employer Survey Results   This employer survey identifies where job opportunities continue to exist in the Australian labour market despite the economic downturn caused by COVID-19. Information available includes which jobs are in demand and what qualifications, skills and experience employers are seeking in these roles. Key findings will continue to be published on a weekly basis.
  • Impacts of COVID-19 on businesses – future staffing expectations and business confidence: Using data up to 26 June, this report provides an update on businesses’ future staffing expectations, and their confidence in remaining open for the next 6 months.

The National Skills Commission’s future market focus: The NSC is developing a range of information, resources and tools to support Australia’s economic recovery from COVID-19. It will focus on determining skills shortages and surpluses, assessing the nature of labour market recovery, analysing structural shifts and identifying current Jobs and Education Data Integration or JEDI is aiming to deliver world-leading intelligence on skills needs. By harnessing the best and widest range of labour market, skills and education data available, JEDI can identify what skills from a person’s current or previous employment can transfer to different jobs that use similar skills. It also identifies skill gaps between the different jobs recommended before showing VET courses available to fill the gap.


  • CDAA published a Position Statement and raises eight critical issues that impact people’s careers
    1. Australia needs a life-long career guidance system
    2. Increasing digital Inclusion
    3. Producing up-to-date career information
    4. Reducing insecure work
    5. Supporting unemployed workers
    6. Supporting people studying
    7. Reshaping working Australia beyond COVID-19
  • Career Conversations and Webinars continue online and other events, previously face to face have moved online too

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April 2020 Australia report

Responses to COVID-19: Embracing digital learning and online collaboration

Schools and Universities in total lockdown -  quick shift to digital learning platforms.

The Australian Labour Market Information Portal

the Australian labour market is changing rapidly as the COVID-19 situation continues to develop. Publishing research and analysis on labour market conditions to ensure the public has the information and understand the effects that COVID-19 is having on the labour market, and to explore how jobs may be changing and jobs that are in demand.

The National Careers Institute was established as part of the 2019-20 Federal Budget measure, ‘Delivering Skills for Today and Tomorrow’ which lays the foundation for the Government’s commitment to strengthening and modernising the skills and careers sectors.

Based on the recommendations of the Strengthening Skills: Expert Review of Australia’s Vocational Education and Training System, the Institute will provide a single authoritative government source of careers information, with a particular focus on marketing and promoting vocational careers. The ongoing role and functions of the Institute will be informed by research and collaboration with governments, industry, employers and education and training providers.


Finding Work in Difficult Times – Top Suggestions from Experts With the nation’s unemployment figures continuing to rise in response to the current COVID-19 crisis, finding work has become immensely challenging for many Australians. Members of the Career Development Association of Australia have come together to offer their top suggestions for maximising the chances of finding work now and as the “new normal” emerges. 

Career Conversations continue online and other events, previously face to face have moved online too 

CDAA Annual General Meeting – was held online  on April 2

City-wide online  morning tea networking  meeting in Melbourne on April 6

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November 2019 Country report

National  - CICA

Big data: mapping a path to a new career

A new paper that explores how large, local and international data sets can help workers and job seekers transfer their existing skills to new jobs and identify new skills to develop.  Reskilling Australia: a data-driven approach, published by the Department of Employment, Skills, Small and Family Business, identifies that moving towards a skills-based approach to labourmarket analysis could help Australia respond to this changing demand for skills. After analysing US careers database O*Net and Burning Glass Technologies job advertisement data from 2.6 million online job postings in Australia, the department developed a ‘job similarity model’ that shows how the skills of one job compare to another to help identify practical avenues to a career change.  “We can look at occupations that are likely to decline and then map out pathways to jobs in growing sectors.”


National Conference in Canberra  19-21 September  ‘Inspiring Excellence in Career Development: Integration’

  • 92% of delegates rated the conference as good to excellent, consistent number of attendees and sector breakdowns compared to the last two years

Comments:  Every aspect was highly valuable from the presentations to the expo space and the networking opportunities

All keynotes were most valuable as they invited reflection on how we think, offered different perspectives and showed examples of how that applies in practice.

AGM with end of year seminar in Victoria: “Are the robots taking over? How career development can shape the future of work.”

Presented by Tristram Hooley, Professor of Careers Education at the University of Derby

Key areas that were addressed will include:

  • What is artificial intelligence and automation and how is it changing work?
  • Should we be worried? Is work disappearing?
  • What evidence is there that there is a fundamental restructuring of the labourmarket on the horizon?
  • What can humanity do to influence the future?
  • Where does career development fit into this? What can careers professionals do to have a meaningful impact on these massive changes?

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September 2019 Country report
Prepared by Agnes Banyasz

National - CICA

‘100 Jobs of the Future’ Report

Ford Australia, Griffith University and Deakin University released their ‘100 Jobs of the Future’ report — complete with potential job titles, descriptions and required skills. They also created a quiz to help people find a role that matched their skills and interests. To see what the future of work would look like, the researchers analysed existing work futures literature and interviewed experts from industries they consider critical to future work, including health, agriculture, engineering and materials sciences, transport and mobility, computing, artificial intelligence (AI), commerce and education. Access full report :

New report by the Grattan Institute: Risks and rewards: when is vocational education a good alternative to higher education?

Over the past 20 years, higher education in Australia has expanded rapidly. By contrast, vocational education attainment rates have fluctuated without much long-term change. There are concerns that students are encouraged to enrol in higher education, overlooking potentially better-paid vocational education alternatives in areas of labour-market need. These concerns are greatest for low-ATAR (Australian Tertiary Admission Rank) university students, whose numbers have increased significantly. Access full report:


Practitioners volunteered at the Melbourne Career Expo – 26-28 July

The total attendance across the three days was 16 058 people. CDAA volunteers contributed approximately 174 career check-ups, delivered 16 informative workshops to over 450 people, answered hundreds of questions at the front desk and conducted approximately 227 express resume reviews. The grateful feedback expressed by people as they left the stand were testament to dedication, expertise and care.  

New performance-based funding model for Australian universities

CDAA endorses the Federal Government’s new performance-based funding model for universities, which will tie increased funding to four measures: graduate employment, student success, student experience and socioeconomic factors. The key driver for the model is producing job-ready graduates with the skills to succeed in the modern economy by incentivising universities to focus on their core business. The new model will be implemented in 2020.

National Conference in Canberra in less than a month:19-21 September ‘Inspiring Excellence in Career Development: Integration’

New Insights about Careers of Flexible Knowledge Workers in IT

Presented by Dr Justin Field to learn how flexible knowledge workers in IT navigate their careers.

Career Conversations August 2019 - Adult

The August Career Conversation for practitioners working with adult clients will discuss Are demands on career practitioners changing?

 Interview with Award Winning International Coach - With Riyaz Javanjee

In this September webinar hear CDAA WA Division President Rebecca Herbertson interview award winning international coach Riyaz Jivanjee


Industry Immersion Experience Program for Year 7 to 10 students in eligible Victorian government schools to actively engage in a range of industry immersion experiences that build their knowledge of the world of work and future workforce skill requirements. The CEAV in partnership with the Department of Education and Training is offering students the opportunity to spend a day on site at an industry workplace in the following growth areas: Construction Technologies, Creative Industries, Defence Technologies, Digital Technologies, Food and Fibre, International Education, Medical Technologies and Pharmaceuticals, Professional Services, Retail, Transport, Distribution, Logistics and Postal, Transport Technologies, Visitor Economies

Students will hear from industry leaders, tour facilities and participate in career development activities that will provide them with valuable and meaningful insight and understanding into the current world of work and the future needs of industry. The program is free and comes with a workbook for students with pre and post Immersion activities, and a teacher resources kit including lesson plans mapped to the Victorian curriculum.


National Careers Registration Webinar Series,

In preparation for the Career Registration Forum to be held during the National Conference in Perth on Monday 25th November 2019, a four-workshop webinar series is being conducted. The aim is three-fold:

  1. to ensure a similar understanding of Careers Registration and its impact as reported by Universities in Higher Education in the UK
  2. to explore whether there is a collective interest across Australian Universities to adapt/adopt Career Registration
  3. (if relevant) to explore what an Australian version of Careers Registration may look
    Access full UK project report

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News and Tools from Australia
by Agnes Banyasz, APCDA Australia Representative

In May, the federal government released the 2019 Australian Jobs publication, which provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the Australian labor market to support job seekers and providers, career advisers, those considering future training and work and people interested in labor market issues. Australian Jobs allows users to explore a wide range of factors, e.g. industry snapshots, occupations, training pathways, location of jobs and future employment prospects. The analysis and the excellent data visualisation in this publication provides an introduction to and overview of some of the factors which can be considered in understanding employment conditions and trends. Click here to access and read full report.

A month later, in June, Deloitte released an important report ‘The path to prosperity - Why the future of work is human’. This is the 7th paper in the Building the Lucky Country Series, which was developed to prompt debate and conversations across business, industry associations, government and the media on issues facing the Australian economy. The June Deloitte report launches the Australian economic discussion from the very positive premise of Australia’s 27 years of continuous economic growth, even through a period of global economic volatility. (Australians benefit from high living standards. The third highest in the world according to the Human Development Index, Then the report moves to the 'call for action' part; stating that Australia must get to work and use the opportunity to make better choices about work, workers and workplaces to pave the path to prosperity for all Australians. The Deloitte report continues with the assertion that a big part of Australia’s productivity story will be about people. Click here to access and read full report.

Both the previously mentioned May and June reports contain a wealth of extremely valuable data and information for carer practitioners to use. You may wonder how all this useful information gets to the general public, who may not look at professional organizations’ or government websites. Additionally, you may ask the following question. How do young job seekers, later year career changers, recently arrived immigrants obtain the most up to date and relevant information? Both the May & June reports are high-quality free resources, that are utilizing up-to-date data, integrate with career planning tools and present these on a friendly user interface. MyFuture, grounded in best practice and career research is a prime example for this; a free platform that can guide an individual of any age from an idea, or sometimes no idea stage to course, employment, industry research, career building blocks, job search steps and actions. The well-oiled cycle of up-to-date research informing best practice user material should and hopefully will contribute to good career choices and prosperity for all.

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Applying Theory to Career Development in Schools
by Dr. Catherine Hughes, Grow Careers, Australia

Career development spans infancy to post-retirement (Hartung, 2013; Super, 1990). It refers to the process managing life, learning and work over the life course (Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs, 2009). It is widely understood that the world of work is experiencing unprecedented change, making the nature of work in the future uncertain and unpredictable. This highlights the importance of providing career development programs and services in schools. Firstly, career development programs in schools help young people to successfully cope with societal expectations about preparing for and adapting to the work role (Super, 1990). Secondly, today's school students will need to adapt to multiple transitions across many jobs over the life course (Savickas, et al., 2009). Career development programs and services for all students is one way to ensure that the nation's youth are equipped to effectively self-manage their career as they respond to a lifetime of career transition and change.

Theories of career development guide career development practitioners in the selection of career interventions, their content and delivery. The vocational problems addressed and the populations served are key criteria in determining the usefulness of a theory as a guide to practice (Richardson, Constantine, & Washburn, 2005; Savickas, 2002). While acknowledging the usefulness of all career theories of relevance to young people, the five career theories initially listed and then summarized below support school career development practitioners in providing developmentally appropriate, concrete, socially conscious, and contemporary programs and interventions that prepare students to self-manage their career in an uncertain and changing world of work.

  1. Life-span, life-space theory (Hartung, 2013; Super, 1990)
  2. Theory of vocational personalities and work environments (Holland, 1997)
  3. Theory of circumscription and compromise (Gottfredson, 2005)
  4. Cognitive information processing theory (Sampson, Reardon, Peterson, & Lenz, 2004)
  5. Career construction theory (Savickas, 2013)
  6. Life-span, Life-space Theory
    Life-span, life-space theory is concerned with five stages of career development (Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance and Decline), the vocational development tasks that individuals encounter at each career stage, processes for managing these vocational development tasks, the social context in which career development occurs, self-concept and the interactions between life-span, life-space and self-concept. Life-span, life-space career theory helps school students to understand how to prepare for making and implementing career decisions during the school years and beyond. Life-span, life-space career theory guides career development practitioners in designing developmentally appropriate career interventions that are aligned with the stage of career development of students (Growth or Exploration) and current and impending vocational development tasks. Interventions should also take into account the life roles relevant to school students' lives and their potential influence on factors such as career maturity, career adaptability and career choice readiness, as well as helping students to clarify their vocational self-concepts.
  7. Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments
    Person-environment fit theories such as Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments help school students to understand the relationship between self and occupations. Holland's six vocational personality and work environment types provide a language and a structure to articulate this relationship. Person-environment fit theories help students to solve problems about identifying congruent occupations and exploring post-school options. The theory of vocational personalities and work environments assists career development practitioners to support students in identifying and exploring post-school options they are likely to find satisfying.
  8. Theory of Circumscription and Compromise
    This career theory reminds us of the importance of career interventions that challenge gender stereotypes in occupations and interventions that raise aspirations. According to the theory, children as young as 6-8 years of age start to reject occupations that are perceived to be incompatible with their gender identity. Further, by early adolescence young people are aware of an occupational hierarchy, have learned the types of occupations their families and communities reject on the basis of social prestige, and are aware of their intellectual ability relative to that of their peers (Gottfredson, 2005). These processes result in a zone of acceptable occupational alternatives, excluding occupations perceived to be of the wrong sex type, occupations perceived to be academically too demanding and occupations inconsistent with perceived social standing. This means that without intervention, many students may be unwilling to explore non-traditional career and course options.
  9. Cognitive Information Processing Theory
    Cognitive information processing theory is concerned with the knowledge base required for effective career problem-solving and decision-making, information processing skills that facilitate the transformation of self-knowledge and knowledge about learning and work options and the world of work into meaningful and satisfying career decisions. The skills learned through the cognitive information processing models prepare students for making good career decisions throughout life whenever they encounter career transitions (Peterson, Sampson, Lenz, & Reardon, 2002). Cognitive information processing career theory has turned its attention to practical issues such as how to deliver cost-effective career services that meet the career development needs of all students in contexts such as schools where the number of students to serve is large compared to the number of full-time equivalent career development practitioners (Sampson, Reardon, Peterson, & Lenz, 2004). This approach enables schools to align career interventions and intensity of career development practitioner support to the level of career choice readiness of students, resulting in a cost-effective approach to school career service delivery that neither over-serves nor under-serves students and uses career development practitioner resources where they are needed most.
  10. Career Construction Theory
    Career adaptability is an important construct from career construction theory. Career adaptability is comprised of self-regulation strengths that individuals can draw on to solve career problems and cope with the demands of vocational development tasks, work traumas and career transitions (Savickas, 2002, 2012). These self-regulation strengths include a concern about one's vocational future, a belief that one has some personal control over it by exploring, refining and deciding, attitudes of curiosity expressed by exploring self and possible future learning and work scenarios, and confidence in taking steps to pursue one's aspirations (Savickas, 2013). "Increasing a person's career adaptability … is a central goal in career education and counseling" (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012, p. 663), and therefore should be a central goal of school career development programs and services. The career construction theory focus on career stories to explore life themes that can be projected into future learning and work possibilities can be blended with a more concrete person-environment fit approach for deeper learning and to enhance student understanding of the relationship between self and the world of work. The Integrative Structured Interview (McMahon & Watson, 2012) is a useful tool for this purpose. After completing activities where students explore their vocational personality, they reflect on the results and convey small stories about their assessed vocational personality profile and its meaning within the context of their life and for career possibilities for the future.


Career development is lifelong and therefore it is appropriate that individuals are exposed to career development support throughout life. For this reason, it is important that schools deliver career development programs and services to all students. Further, providing career development programs and services in schools is one way that nations can equip students with the career self-management skills to enable them to respond appropriately to multiple career transitions throughout life. Theories of career development serve as a guide for schools to construct developmentally appropriate career interventions to equip today's students with the career self-management skills they will need for the future world of work.


Gottfredson, L. S. (2005). Applying Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise in career guidance and counseling. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.). Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 71-100). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Hartung, P. J. (2013). The life-span, life-space theory of careers. In S. B. Brown & R. W. Lent (2013). Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (2nd ed.), pp. 83-113. Hoboken: NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (2009). The Australian Blueprint for Career Development, prepared by Miles Morgan Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. Accessed 23 March 2019 [Online] Available at:

McMahon, M. & Watson, M. (2012). Telling stories of career assessment. Journal of Career Assessment, 20, 440-451.

Peterson, G. W., Sampson, J. P. Jr. Lenz, J. G., & Reardon, R. C. (2002). A Cognitive information processing approach to career problem solving and decision making. In D. Brown (Ed.). Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 312-369). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Richardson, M. S. (1993). Work in people's lives: A location for counseling psychologists. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40, 425-433.

Richardson, M. S., Constantine, K., & Washburn, M. (2005). New directions for theory development in vocational psychology. In W. B. Walsh & M. L. Savickas (Eds.), Handbook of vocational psychology (3rd ed., pp. 51-83). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sampson, J. P., Peterson, G. W., Lenz, J. G., & Reardon, R. C. (1992). A cognitive approach to career development and services: Translating concepts into practice. The Career Development Quarterly, 41, 67-74.

Sampson, J. P., Reardon, R. C., Peterson, G. W. & Lenz, J. G. (2004). Career counseling & services: A cognitive information processing approach. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole - Thompson Learning.

Savickas, M. L. (2002). Career construction theory. In D. Brown (Ed.). Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 149-205). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Savickas, M. L. (2012). A paradigm for career intervention in the 21st Century. Journal of Counseling and Development, 90, 13-19.

Savickas, M. L. (2013). Career construction theory and practice. In S. B. Brown & R.W. Lent (2013). Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (2nd ed., pp. 147-183). Hoboken: NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Savickas, M. L. & Baker, D. B. (2005). The history of vocational psychology: Antecedents, origin, and early development. In W. B. Walsh & M. L. Savickas. Handbook of vocational psychology (3rd ed., pp. 15-50). Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum.

Savikas, M. L., M. L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J-P, Duarte, M. E., Guichard J., Soresi, S., Van Esbroeck, R., van Vianen, E. M. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 239-250.

Savickas, M. L. & Porfeli, E. J. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 661-673.

Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown and L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (2nd ed., pp. 197-261). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Super, D. E., Savickas, M. L., & Super, C. M. (1996). The life-span, life-space approach to careers. In Brown, D. & Brooks, L. Career Choice and Development (3rd ed.), CA: Jossey-Bass Inc., pp121-178.

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Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) Launches Revised Professional Standards
Agnes Banyasz

The Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) is the peak body for the Australian Career industry. CICA's members are the 10 national and state level Career Development Associations. The inaugural Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners were launched in 2006, fully implemented in conjunction with CICA's Member Associations by January 2012 and heralded an important milestone for the career industry in Australia; outlining the minimum requirements needed by Australian Career Development Practitioners. Their launch was a significant step forward in professionalizing the career development industry and providing confidence to stakeholders for the delivery of career services.

In late 2017, all CICA Member Associations agreed to review the Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners. The review of the Core Competencies and Specialised Competencies of the Professional Standards ensured that those entering the profession are provided with skills and knowledge appropriate for contemporary career development practice.

The Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners are the systems and procedures that define the career industry, its membership and services. By recognizing the skills and knowledge required of Career Development Practitioners, the Professional Standards guide entry into the field by providing a foundation for training and qualifications.

The key elements of the Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners are:

  • Terminology
  • Membership of the Profession
  • Code of Ethics
  • Entry-Level Qualifications>
  • Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
  • Competency Framework that informs the development of entry-level qualifications.

While internationally, the terms "career development" and "career guidance" have been used synonymously, "Career development" was adopted in 2006 as the overarching term in the Australian career industry. In the Glossary of Terms listed at the end of the Professional Standards document, it is defined as, '[t]he process of managing life, learning, work, leisure, and transitions across the lifespan in order to move towards a personally determined future.'

The CICA Competency Framework contains Core Competencies and Specialised Competencies. Core Competencies are the skills, knowledge and attitudes required by all Career Development Practitioners regardless of their work setting. These are:

  • Career development theory
  • Labour market information
  • Communication and interpersonal skills
  • Ethical practice
  • Technology, information and resources
  • Professional practice application

Specialised Competencies are the additional skills, knowledge and attitudes that may be required by some Career Development Practitioners to undertake specific career development roles or cater for the needs of specific client groups. Appropriate training must be undertaken to develop the Specialised Competencies. These are:

  • Career assessment
  • Career counseling
  • Program delivery
  • Working with diverse clients
  • Project management
  • Employer liaison
  • Research skills

The full text of the CICA Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners can be accessed here:

A series of webinars on Professional Standards will focus on each of the Core Competencies and Specializations. The cost of each webinar is $18 USD. The dates and topics are:

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Hope, Connections and more from Australia by Agnes Banyasz

Sharing Government Level News

Hope is not a strategy - our shared responsibility for the future of work and workers

The Australian Senate Select Committee on Future Work and Works have released their report. Few concepts are more complex and less tangible than 'the future'. Work is an integral part of life for most adult Australians. At a fundamental level, the work that we do pays for the necessities of life and determines our standard of living. It is also part of our identity, has the capacity to be engaging and a source of satisfaction, or to be a source of uncertainty and stress. The availability and stability of decent work and decent pay is important on an individual, family and community level. The social and economic success of our society depends on this.

There are a variety of forces shaping our society and the world of work. Increasing globalization, geopolitical factors in the Australian region and beyond, climate change and an ageing population are among them. The challenge for our government in this contextual setting is to build on the solid economic and social foundations of our society for the benefit of all Australians.

Connecting the Worlds of Learning and Work: Prioritizing school-industry partnerships in Australia's education system

This report addresses a collective challenge for education and employers; ensuring that all young people in Australia develop the skills and capabilities that will enable them to succeed in the future of work.

In recent years, there has been a growing consensus that partnerships between schools and industry are a highly effective way to connect young people to the world of work and support the development of skills valued in current and future workplaces. Many schools across the country have been building partnerships with industry, but progress has been ad hoc and partnerships are not yet common practice in all schools (Gonski et al., 2018). Disadvantaged learners have the most to gain from industry exposure, yet, too often, school-industry partnerships rely on the social and professional connections that exist within the school community - which risks leaving many disadvantaged students even further behind.

Sharing Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA) News

CDAA President reported on the six following completed projects.

  • 3-level Networking and Learning Initiative
    CDAA now has a series of sector-based Career Conversation sessions scheduled through to the end of next year. These sessions will be facilitated in the first instance by a member of the Leadership Group, and then as negotiated with participants. The first of these sector-specific Career Conversation sessions was targeted for practitioners who are working in the tertiary education sector. The next one will be targeting practitioners who are working in schools.<//i>
  • Revised Mentoring Program
    A revitalized Mentor Program, available to all CDAA members, is now active, with a number of people already signed up - both Mentors and Mentees.
  • New Corporate Partner Program
    A new structure is now in place for CDAA's Corporate Partner arrangements. National Office is communicating with existing and potential Corporate Partners, in accordance with an agreed upon communication plan.
  • Operation of the CPD Program
    CDAA's National Office has now taken on the responsibility of coordinating operational activities associated with their CPD program.
  • Promotion to vocational and tertiary career development students
    National Office has successfully rolled out a small marketing campaign which has resulted in a number of new membership applications from students.

Sharing Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) News

Link to significant local and international reports and studies:

2018 Review of the Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners

The Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners came into effect on January 1, 2012 and heralded an important milestone for the career industry in Australia. The introduction of the Professional Standards was a significant step forward in professionalizing the industry and providing confidence to stakeholders for the delivery of career services.

In developing the Standards, CICA was focused on ensuring that they were practitioner owned and endorsed through an extensive consultation process with all CICA Member Associations. Professional Standards are living documents that need to be responsive to changing contexts. In October 2017, the CICA Council commissioned a review of the Professional Standards and established a Working Group to manage the review. CICA is committed to ensuring that members of CICA Member Associations are provided with an opportunity to provide input into the review of the Standards through a developed survey.

World Economic Forum - Future of Jobs Report 2018

The emerging contours of the new world of work in the Fourth Industrial Revolution are rapidly becoming a lived reality for millions of workers and companies around the world. The inherent opportunities for economic prosperity, societal progress and individual flourishing in this new world of work are enormous, yet crucially dependent on the ability of all concerned stakeholders to instigate reform in education and training systems, labor market policies, business approaches to developing skills, employment arrangements and existing social contracts. Catalyzing positive outcomes and a future of good work for all will require bold leadership and an entrepreneurial spirit from businesses and governments, as well as an agile mindset of lifelong learning from employees.

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Improving Career Outcomes for Migrants Seeking Work in Australia by Laurie Nowell

Australia is one of the world's most diverse nations with half of the population either having been born overseas or having at least one of their parents born overseas. It is also a nation whose economic prosperity is based in migration. Last year, more than 200,000 migrants entered the country helping to boost its population to the current level of 25 million. Despite the economic imperatives and the wide social acceptance of migration and multiculturalism, newly arrived, professionally qualified migrants to Australia can face considerable challenges in finding work in their field. Employment plays a critical role in the process of resettlement for migrants. The economic, social and health benefits have been long demonstrated.

Employment is an essential step for newcomers to Australia in order to settle successfully with the same economic, social and health benefits employment accords to all other Australians. New migrants can find themselves in a vulnerable position as new entrants into a new and unfamiliar labor market. Difficulties can include a lack of knowledge about the labor market and recruitment practices, not using the language recognized by Australian employers, limited access to professional networks and a lack of knowledge of local workplace culture.

Overall the employment rate for skilled migrants is comparable with the Australian average but there are important differences in employment outcomes for different groups within Australia's Skilled Migration Program. Skilled migrants who are sponsored directly by employers go straight into a job on arrival and are unlikely to experience unemployment. Those from English speaking regions who generally have strong language and cultural ties to Australia also are more likely to find work in a skilled job relatively quickly.

In contrast, skilled migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds can find that the culture and language gap, which also influences employer perceptions, can make finding professional work more challenging. For some people there may be barriers in relation to English language used in the workplace, specifically, and there is also the possibility of discrimination when looking for a job.

Migrant and refugee settlement agency, AMES Australia,, delivers a series of programs and services designed to support newly arrived migrants and refugees to re-establish their careers in Australia and reach their goals in terms of economic and social participation. The organization regards employment as an essential cornerstone in the process of successful settlement for most new migrants. It has created a range of innovative programs to assist people arriving in Australia to find good quality work.

One of these innovative programs is the Working the Australian Way (WTAW) Program in which corporate partners work closely with AMES to develop a practical agenda to support participants in their search for work. WTAW workshops gives participants an opportunity to meet with senior executives from high profile Australian companies. Program participants get advice about professional interviews as well as insights into Australian workplace cultures. The workshop is interactive with an emphasis on practicing interviewing and starting up new professional networks. It is also provides participants with the opportunity to meet with other people in a similar situation and share resources and experiences.

An independent evaluation of the WTAW Program found that 73% of participants started a new job after the workshop, almost all within three months. Two thirds of the participants secured a job that fully or partially matched their professional backgrounds. Seventy-four per cent of the WTAW Program participants shared that the workshops were useful for their job search in Australia. Additionally, most participants said the workshop gave them new confidence as well as strategies and networks for finding professional work in Australia.

According to the same independent evaluation, the WTAW Program also delivered positive outcomes to corporate partners; enabling participating companies and organizations to demonstrate leadership and make a positive social contribution.

The Skilled Professional Migrant Program (SPMP) is another program delivered by AMES Australia. It is an intensive course, run over four weeks, offering an opportunity for skilled migrants in Australia to learn about the local labor market and fine-tune their skills with the support of a mentor from the same professional background. The SPMP assists migrants with professional qualifications to develop job search skills in Australia. These skills include the preparation of résumés and job applications, interview skills and networking as well as workplace culture and law.

Overall, the SPMP aims to provide a bridge across the cultural divide facing some migrants relaunching their careers in Australia. An evaluation of the mentoring aspect of the program found that all of the 239 participants surveyed shared that their personal and professional development skills were significantly improved through guidance from their mentor. An overall evaluation of the program found that 72% of participants said that their employment after the SPMP was a good or partial match with their overseas background and more than 80% rated the usefulness of the SPMP as very high. SPMP evaluation results concluded that information and advice provided at the right time can enable people to shift into work that more closely matches their qualifications and overseas experience.

More on AMES Australia

A common research theme into migrant employment outcomes is that early and intensive support and intervention can have a significant positive effect in improving outcomes for newly arrived migrants and refugees seeking work in Australia. AMES Australia is the largest provider of services for migrants, refugees and asylum seekers in Australia. Services provided by AMES Australia include a comprehensive range of refugee settlement, English language tuition, vocational training and employment programs in NSW, Victoria, and Tasmania. More than 40,000 people accessed AMES programs in 2017. The organization views employment as an essential cornerstone in the process of successful settlement for most new migrants. Most of AMES Australia's programs are geared in some way to produce positive employment outcomes for clients.

Links to research papers

Link to the Skilled Professional Migrant Program web page:

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Laurie Nowell has been a journalist and writer for 25 years working for publications in Australia and the United Kingdom (UK). His work has appeared in The Age, The Herald Sun and The Australian in Australia and The Times and The Guardian in the UK. Recently, he has been working in Public affairs with AMES Australia while also writing about the migrant and refugee sector and working with migrant communities to help them engage with mainstream media.

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Working with Immigrants - A Personal Australian Perspective by Agnes Banyasz

Over the past 30 years I've had the good fortune of working with immigrants in Melbourne, Australia in a range of settings. In this article, I will attempt to distill and share the key learnings from my experience and also feature the government-funded structures available for new migrants as we call immigrants here 'down under'.

My experience

In the 80s, I was in the first team of 'bilingual information instructors' selected and trained to work with newly arrived migrants living mostly in government built and funded hostels or out in the community. There were many Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian refugees, people from Poland, the Soviet Union, various Latin American countries, all living together in these hostels, receiving free housing, English language classes, childcare, health checks and regular sessions with bilingual instructors. Instruction delved deeply into a list of key survival and life skills topics considered necessary for successful settlement and transitioning into their new life in Australia, e.g. Banking, Education, Health, Housing, Transport, Tax, Insurance, Social Security, Law, Government, Employment, etc.

While career-related questions and concerns were always on newly arrived migrants' minds, true to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, they usually came up in class sessions after participants felt somewhat confident about having a basic grip on their new everyday reality. New migrants wanted a job, so they could move out of the hostel and look after themselves and their family's needs even at the cost of serious career disruption, dislocation and often discontinuation. Tram or taxi drivers with doctoral degrees, university-qualified factory workers became common again, same as after the post-World War II migration wave.

During the 90s, I worked mostly with professionally qualified migrants enrolled in government-funded courses that had career building and workplace skills components in addition to English language training. Many course participants were highly qualified people from Yugoslavia, Somalia, Iran, etc. who were very keen to re-establish their career as soon as possible. There was no more time to waste, and we needed to work in leaps and bounds here, which was a big challenge for all.

The noughties found me working mostly with international students who wanted to stay in Australia and become permanent residents after the completion of their studies, as well as with highly qualified and skilled migrants who were attracted to our sunny shores and arrived here under the 'skilled migration' program. The investment into this life adventure is usually big, stakes are often high and career decisions need to be aligned with these, presenting another challenge for practitioner and clients alike.

I learned from working with migrants that . . .

they are an incredibly diverse and varied group made up of refugees, business migrants, professionally qualified individuals and families, adventure seekers, digital nomads, etc.

to be successful with the career/life planning and strategy, I have to identify and be able to meet each client at the specific crossroad they are at and move ahead from there, taking into consideration:

  • initial adjustment needs and processes
  • capacity for dealing with culture shock
  • possible financial difficulties
  • commitments and responsibilities to nuclear and extended family
  • coping skills for unmet expectations & disappointments
  • social isolation & loss of previous support networks

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News from Australia by Agnes Banyasz

Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA)'s Career Conversations are designed to support the connectivity amongst its rural, regional and urban members. They employ an online environment of respectful and robust discussion and share practice. Although offered since late 2016, they are clearly gaining support from members across the country. Current plans are in the works to increase their frequency and vary their topics. Some topics have specific sector focus, e.g. school, post-secondary, while others are general.

I joined the July Career Conversation, A Mid-Year Review - Let's Catch up and Discuss Moving Forward in 2018. This session was facilitated by CDAA Vice-President Carolyn Alchin. Thirteen members from different Australian states and territories logged in via a Zoom meeting platform and we spent an hour sharing information and knowledge.

We all agreed that the recent news released from the State of Victoria is a positive one, whereby every Victorian student will receive careers guidance from the age of 12 as part of a state government overhaul of careers education backed by an AU$109 million investment in the state budget. The changes will be rolled out next year after a review commissioned by the Education Department found careers education started too late in government schools, varied in quantity and quality, and did not provide enough meaningful work experience.

The Victorian plan states "Career education must begin earlier than Years 10 to 12, and it must reflect the fact that students' needs evolve as school progresses." Next year, Year 7 and 8 students will take part in mandatory "career self-exploration workshops" assessing their strengths, setting goals and discussing different jobs. These changes also will increase the number of school-based career practitioners. The government has promised to provide training for 400 advisors.

Session facilitator, Carolyn Alchin, then shared some of the most relevant slides from the latest Foundation for Young Australians (FYA) report titled The New Work Reality. It follows the journeys of 14,000 young people over a decade. The report identifies the four most significant factors that can accelerate the transition from full-time education to full-time work, including an education that builds enterprise skills, being able to undertake relevant paid work experience, finding paid employment in a sector which is growing, and an optimistic mindset. Launched in 2015, the FYA New Work Order research series, with six extensive reports so far, has analysed how disruption to the world of work has serious implications for young Australians. Please visit

By the close of the July CDAA Career Conversation, I felt that the productive hour was spent in a well-moderated, dynamic, peer-to-peer environment. I definitely will plan to join the conversation again later in the year. Perhaps I'll meet you there, too!?!

"Employability in a Global Context: Evolving Policy and Practice in Employability, Work-Integrated Learning, and Career Development Learning" This research project was activated to explore trends emerging in the intersecting domains of employability, work-integrated learning, and career development learning. In late 2015, researchers, academics, and career practitioners from Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada gathered to attend an Employability Masterclass at the University of Wollongong in New South Wales, Australia. Attendees explored questions around employability in vocationally specific and non-vocationally specific degrees. The language and conversations highlighted the influence of global contexts on strategies and practices in transnational settings – specifically, how employability is defined and supported across the breadth of university activity. Graduate Careers Australia funding in 2017 enabled the project team to progress the study with the aim of identifying critical learnings for Australian practice. The following report contains 20 pages of clear concepts, findings, and recommendations on this highly discussed and relevant topic, and will prove to be a rewarding read for practitioners across the globe:

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Australia Country Report by Agnes Banyasz

Government Level

In the State of Victoria there is a currently an ongoing 'Inquiry into Career Advice Activities in Schools.' The question being asked of students, recent school leavers, teachers, career advisors and parents is, 'Is career advice in Victorian schools hitting the mark?' Their shared views and experiences are being captured via a survey. The reporting date for this inquiry is 30 September 2018. Once the report is tabled in Parliament, an electronic copy will be available for download. Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA), Career Education Association of Victoria (CEAV), together with many schools, vocational education providers and businesses have already submitted their contributions.


Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) News

CICA again lists significant local and international reports and studies on its News page:

  • VET qualifications: who is more likely to complete and why?
  • Future job openings for new entrants by industry and occupation
  • Crunching the numbers: Exploring the use and usefulness of the Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR)
  • What the future of work will mean for jobs, skills, and wages
  • The evidence base for careers websites. What works?

APCDA Conference - Beijing

Last week I attended and presented at my first APCDA conference which was a very positive experience both professionally and personally. The pre-conference events allowed us to get to know each other in a relaxed setting while learning about how our colleagues at Tsinghua University Career Center work or visit the New Elite Development Program, which is a major provider of career planning services in China. The conference opened with Professor Hong Li's eloquent and evocative presentation on Taoist Philosophy and Decision-Making, highlighting some direct application to career decision-making and counseling. The following 2.5 days offered more keynotes and a feast of concurrent sessions with a huge diversity of topics and presenters, representing many countries and industry sectors of at least four continents. In the spirit of open dialogue, we learned about each other's practice, exchanged ideas and discussed opportunities for cooperation in research and best practice development. We had all the secret ingredients of a good conference: great location, precise organization, enthusiastic participants and warm collegiality!

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Current Focus on Life Beyond School and University in Australia by Agnes Banyasz

A bit over a year ago the Assistant Minister for Vocational Education and Skills started a national conversation on preparing students for life beyond the classroom. Educators, parents, government, industry and career representatives held a roundtable discussion on the development of a new National Career Education Strategy. CDAA was also part of this roundtable working group which produced recommendations to the Commonwealth Department of Education regarding the development of this National Career Education Strategy. Continuing the Government’s focus on career education in schools, the Career education self-assessment tool for schools was also launched. Developed by the Australian Government with support from the Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA), the new online tool is to assist schools to evaluate and improve their career education strategies towards creating a highly skilled 21st century workforce. It adds to a suite of resources developed with government support to implement the Preparing secondary students for work framework.

Early this year the national 2017 Employer Satisfaction Survey got published, where more than 4000 employers across Australia outline employer impressions of the skills and knowledge of our higher education graduates. The Minister for Education and Training said the 2017 Employer Satisfaction Survey results were encouraging but also reinforce the need to ensure that higher education institutions are focused on the work readiness of graduates and place student outcomes at the forefront of their considerations to meet the needs of the economy, employers and ultimately, boost the employment prospects of graduates. The survey highlighted satisfaction levels for vocationally oriented courses, such as engineering and health. Satisfaction levels for vocationally-oriented courses were almost 10 per cent higher than from generalist courses such as management and commerce.

The 2017 Employer Satisfaction Survey also highlighted satisfaction with graduates, as rated by their direct supervisors, as 84 per cent. Employer satisfaction with other graduate attributes was as follows:

  • 93% satisfaction with foundation skills – general literacy, numeracy and communication skills and the ability to investigate and integrate knowledge.
  • 90% satisfaction with adaptive skills – the ability to adapt and apply skills/knowledge and work independently.
  • 86% satisfaction with collaborative skills – teamwork and interpersonal skills.
  • 93% satisfaction with technical skills – application of professional and technical knowledge and standards.
  • 85% satisfaction with employability skills – the ability to perform and innovate in the workplace.

Overall, the 2017 Employer Satisfaction Survey results suggest employers remain highly satisfied with graduates from Australia’s higher education system. The employer satisfaction survey is a key part of the Federal Government’s drive to ensure greater transparency in the information students can access to make informed decisions about what and where to study. Students are also able to compare satisfaction rates across a broader range of Australian higher education institutions and also how courses are viewed by employers.

News from Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA)

CICA again lists a large number of significant local and international reports and studies on its News page:

  • The evidence base for career websites. What works?
  • Towards a Reskilling Revolution: A Future of Jobs for All
  • Eight Futures of Work Scenarios and their Implications
  • Employer Engagement in Education – Insights from international evidence for effective practice and future research
  • Improving the Employment Potential of University Graduates
  • Australian apprenticeships: trends, challenges and future opportunities for dealing with Industry
  • New Victoria University report on increasing female participation in trades

News from Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA)

  • The 2018 Excellence Awards Program has been launched.
  • Discussions were held with both SEEK and LinkedIn regarding CDAA support for their career services programs.
  • The Australian Career Practitioner journal (ACP) has been moved to a digital platform.
  • For the first time, the 2018 Annual General Meeting was held via Zoom web conferencing, to ensure members can attend from across the country and help shape the future of the association.

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Made in Australia, Usable across the Pacific

By: Agnes Banyasz

This article focuses on two recent Australian publications that have strong relevance for career practitioners in other continents and countries as well.

PwC (one of Australia's leading professional services firms) is working to align with vocational education reform initiatives, including the recently announced Skilling Australians Fund and Industry Specialist Mentoring program, as well as the National Career Development Strategy. The report states that career support in Australia exists, but is inadequate and people experience multiple roadblocks and hurdles. It further asserts the need to transition to a single support model that works for all people, no matter what their life stage and circumstance, and can be offered through multiple channels, including an online portal, telephone, online chat and text messaging service. The identification of seven core elements that are key to a future whole-of-system career support model began with the simple question, 'How might we enhance careers and pathways support for all Australians?' The seven core elements include the following:

  • Lifelong takes into consideration the whole of the person, and grows with the person to accommodate new learnings and experiences
  • Connected to government, industry, local communities, and educational institutions; and is connecting – to the right people and networks as needed
  • Accessible to all people, relevant and understandable, available via multiple support channels
  • High quality, reliable, and delivered by qualified and trained professionals
  • Tailored to the individual and their niche needs
  • Enabling people to be work-ready and supporting people to acquire work-related experience
  • Empowering the person to manage their career and navigate the uncertain and complex future of work

The full report can be accessed on the CICA website.

The second publication is 'Hard focus on soft skills' and is written by Dr Phil Lambert, lead curriculum expert to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Education 2030 project. The paper was commissioned by the New South Wales (NSW) Department of Education under the EDUCATION: FUTURE FRONTIERS initiative, exploring the implications of developments in AI and automation for education. As part of this initiative, the Department has commissioned background reports on future skills needs. The report states that the term "soft skills" has been applied to many of the competencies now being prioritised by countries in their curriculum reform. This term, often used to profile the capabilities of employees and also given prominence in recruitment processes, refers to skills and dispositions, many of which have also been described as 21st century skills. These skills are no longer seen as "soft" or of secondary importance to other conventional and well-entrenched curriculum content owing to changing economic, social and environmental conditions in and across countries.

Though terminology differs across the globe, the competencies most countries include or are looking to include in their curricula are:

  • communication (multi-literacies)
  • Information Communication Technology (ICT) skills/digital literacy
  • innovation and enterprise
  • intercultural understanding/global mindset
  • problem solving/critical thinking/creative thinking
  • resilience
  • respectful relationships
  • self and social awareness
  • self-efficacy
  • social skills and teamwork

"There is clear recognition across the globe that the acquisition of technical knowledge and know-how (mastery and techniques), though valued, are not sufficient for young people to navigate life and work in a world that is complex and characterised by ambiguities and uncertainty." LinkedIn economist, Guy Berger's (2016) observation further supports this: "Hard skills vary based on the job, but soft skills are required for every job." The full report can be accessed on the CICA website.

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Australian Panorama - Activities in the Career Field
by Agnes Banyasz

As the 2017 academic and calendar year is heading to the end, it is timely to share with our APCDA member colleagues the highlights and main activities behind and ahead of us in Australia. In May, a very successful Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA) National Conference was held in Brisbane, Queensland. 'Inspiring Excellence in Career Development: Responding Locally to Global Challenges' focused on the UN's Sustainable Development Goals 2013 and how the career development profession can contribute to achieving them at a local level. Through a range of high level keynote speeches and more than 25 concurrent presentations, discussion centred around the quest for a healthy life, the pursuit of equity, access to education and training, and access to sustainable work opportunities.

The 2018 CDAA National Conference will be held in Hobart, Tasmania from 2-4 May, with the title "Inspiring excellence in career development: 2020 Vision - Career Adaptability and Meaningful Futures." The positioning key question for the conference is: In the current environment of unpredictable and constantly evolving work futures, how can we empower our clients to develop appropriate skills which will enable them to adapt successfully to change throughout their careers?

The call for abstracts for the 2018 National Conference is open now. For aspiring presenters, please consider submitting your ideas by 27th October.

In addition to the once a year conference, CDAA members across the nation have been very actively working on keeping up to date with professional issues via an increasing number of webinars, as well as new format breakfasts held in all states. Here are some examples of the new breakfast format:

Links to three recently published reports on the state of work in Australia:

  1. 2017 Australian Communities Forum Recap took place on September 19th and was presented by McCrindle and AlphaSys. It provided a snapshot of the key factors influencing Australian communities and some surprising findings from the just-completed Australian Communities Report
  2. The Foundation for Young Australians (FYA) in partnership with AlphaBeta, a strategy and economic advisory business, produced, The New Work Smarts - Thriving in the New Work Order
  3. New South Wales' Youth Action's Policy Paper, Career Guidance - The Missing Link in School to Work Transitions

CDAA Victoria is very excited to launch our new Roundtable facilitated networking discussion events to replace the former breakfasts - 5 sessions available!

The discussion question for this Roundtable is: How do we manage unrealistic expectations in the Career Development space?

Come along to listen and share techniques to manage unrealistic expectations from:

  • clients
  • parents and significant others
  • clients with intellectual disability and their significant others
  • employers
  • other colleagues eg: teachers in schools who have limited knowledge of the career development space and future predictions.

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Australian Perspective on the Career Industry by Agnes Banyasz

With this being my first newsletter article as incoming country director for Australia, I would like to say a warm "Hello" to everyone and provide an overview of the Australian career industry structure. The Australian career industry is diverse and segmented, especially if we take into consideration that it caters to a much smaller population than many other more populous countries we benchmark ourselves against. In 2003, after a few years of intra-industry dialogue and planning, the Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) was incorporated as a national peak body. It is a focal point for government and other stakeholders concerned for and interested in promoting quality career development services in Australia.

CICA's mission is to:

  • Consult and collaborate with relevant stakeholders
  • Enhance collegiality within the career industry to achieve agreed goals
  • Facilitate strategic liaisons with stakeholders and policy makers
  • Develop community awareness of the concept, benefit and value of career development
  • Promote professional standards and practice within the career industry
  • Enhance relationships within the international career development community

CICA is comprised of 10 membership based associations, each with their own industry segment focus.

National Associations:

  • Australian Centre for Career Education (ACCE or CEAV) – secondary school education
  • Australian Institute of Sport: Personal Excellence (AISPE) – elite athletes' career development
  • Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA) – broad based membership
  • National Association of Graduate Career Advisory Services (NAGCAS) – post secondary education
  • Rehabilitation Counselling Association of Australasia Inc (RCAA) – rehabilitation

State and Territory Associations:

  • Career Advisers Association of New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory (CAANSW/ACT)
  • Career Education Association of Western Australia (CEAWA)
  • Career Education Association of Northern Territory (CEANT)
  • Queensland Association of Student Advisors (QASA)
  • Queensland Guidance and Counselling Association (QGCA)

CICA and its member associations are working hard on multiple projects – e.g., "How to improve career advice to school students" and "How to improve career advice to all Australians beyond the school system both at national and regional levels and advocate on behalf of career practitioners towards achieving a career development culture where individuals are empowered to make informed career decisions and manage their life-long career development." CICA is now an invited party to debates on career development issues. It has already gained recognition for its willingness to contribute to discussion papers, seminars and workshops. The development of an excellent working relationship with Governments facilitates cross-fertilization of ideas and frank exchanges about issues that impact the profession. There is a strongly developing relationship between policy makers, researchers and career practitioners in Australia, and CICA will continue to encourage this interactive and constructive relationship. The impact on individual members of career associations will be cumulative. As the realization that quality career interventions impact on the economic as well as social benefits for all Australians, and as we are more able to promote the advantages of these interventions, the profile of the career industry will be raised and the opportunities for practitioners will expand.

APCDA welcomes new Australian Country Director, Agnes Banyasz. After living the first 25 years of her life in Hungary, the rest in Australia, and experiencing both personal career dislocation and relocation, Agnes naturally gravitated towards specializing in intercultural career development. She has been working as a career strategist and intercultural communications coach for more than 25 years and her experience spans industries and continents. For 10 years, Agnes managed the first faculty based careers centre at The University of Melbourne, which offered a full range of customized career programs and services for business students and alumni. She is a Certified Leading Professional through the Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) and maintains professional membership to key local and international associations (CDAA and APCDA). Agnes is delighted to have participated in conferences all over world. This connectedness to local and international best practice principles allows her to build strong and rewarding relationships with clients and colleagues. When not working, Agnes likes to swim, walk, spend time with family and listen to jazz. She can be contacted through

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Australia Country Report, May 2016 by Carole Brown

The Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA),, is delighted to share that they have just hired a new National Manager, Peter Mansfield. He formerly was General Manager Member Services of the Printing Industries Association of Australia. Since March, Peter has been working with the National Executive Committee and association personnel on association policy, strategy, finances and operations on plans to grow both CDAA membership and services.

In September 2015, the Career Development Association of Australia wrote to the newly appointed Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, and the new Education Minister, Senator Birmingham, to advocate on key issues of concern. A meeting was finally secured with the senior adviser to Education Minister Birmingham in early April. The meeting confirmed that the Minister and Governments’ view was that responsibility for career development rested with State & territory governments as they ran schools and career development. A counter argument that the issue was a life long and included workforce issues. The CDAA will develop a survey for members that will lead to the development of a Policy paper to be released as part of the election campaign in July.

By contrast the Australian Government Minister for Human Services, which has responsibility for government funded Disability Employment, established a Taskforce a year ago to review the Employment Framework. CDAA submitted its support to the Taskforce to consider individualised career development models as well as use of professionally qualified practitioners. A meeting with the Taskforce Departmental coordinator also reinforced CDAA input and acknowledgement that the Government will positively consider these issues in its final response to a new framework.

The International Association for Education and Vocational guidance (IAEVG) confirmed that a proposal by CDAA to host an international conference in Brisbane for May 10-12 has been accepted. The conference theme will be finalized over the next month or so but will consider global workforce implications and disruptive technologies on career development practice across the life stream. Further detail will be provided for APCDA member organizations and members. Participation is enthusiastically encouraged.

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Australian Government Changes Impact Career Services by Andrew Rimington

A May 2014 Australian Government budget decision, which came into effect at the end of the year, removed $2.4 million of labor market transition program funding to disadvantaged groups such as youth. Since this late spring decision, the Australian Chamber of Commerce & Industry convened a Career Development Stakeholder Forum, which included industry representatives, senior Departmental decision makers from Education, Employment and Industry portfolios, as well as key stakeholders such as Career Development Association of Australia, other Career Industry Council of Australia members and other peak bodies, to develop sustainable models for State and Territory Governments to consider for co-investment. The outcome is a working group to review current career services activities, identify gaps in service and provide recommendations to government.

A late December 2014 Ministerial reshuffle in the Australian Government included portfolio functions being reallocated across Departments as well as appointments of new Ministers and reallocation of portfolio responsibilities. Specifics and details as to how the Australian career development sector will be affected will be shared in future newsletters.

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CDAA: Inspiring Excellence in an Environment of Chaos by Greg Parker

The Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA) chose this theme for its 2015 National Conference in Perth, Western Australia, on April 8 through 10. Australia is caught in a period of general chaos — economic strains are evidenced by government actions and direction; the proposed government changes receive widespread opposition from large proportions of the electorate; the response of financial restructure is evident, with funding of career development initiatives and baseline support being reduced and even withdrawn. At the same time, the Australian workforce faces general chaotic change as Australia begins to find its way from its historical manufacturing base. For the current and future workforce it means a new landscape:

  • What career opportunities exist now and into the future?
  • What transition arrangements are needed for the Australian workforce?
  • What should students of today be considering when the future is so chaotic?

"All great changes are preceded by chaos" — Deepak Chopra

Does this sound familiar for many other parts of the world? Are other countries at different stages of the continuum? All is not lost! CDAA has brought together an impressive field of Keynote speakers to help all of us get ahead of the chaos.

  • Richard Knowdell — delivering perspectives on yesterday, today & tomorrow — get an insight, and a head start
  • Professor Tristram Hooley — leveraging the internet — a new context for career building
  • Professor Jim Bright — practical approaches to the challenge of change, chance and transition
  • Kate Sommerville and Michelle Cowan — two different perspectives on the diversity factor affecting women in male dominated careers

In addition, the program is filled with great concurrent presentations across streams of Leadership, Research and Practice.

CDAA's conference presents an excellent opportunity for all to work their way through this maze. To learn more, and to register, go to

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CDAA's President

Andrew Rimington has been working for both Commonwealth and State governments in senior management roles in the employment, education & training (EET) program delivery and policy areas for more than 25 years. Andrew also managed a University Careers Advisory service, had a senior management role with a private training provider, and maintained a consulting and private practice working primarily in career transition and rehabilitation. His current role as a Senior Policy Manager with the Victorian Employers' Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VECCI) brings a focus across EET policy nationally through Australian Chamber of Commerce & Industry Committees and Working Groups. Andrew has been involved in many committees, reference groups, Industry Training Advisory Boards as well as Ministerial appointments to advisory boards in employment and education. Current Board appointments include Director of the Community Services & Health Industry Skills Council and President of the CDAA National Committee.

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Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA) by Andrew Rimington

Where CDAA is at now:

2014 is an extremely busy year for the Career Development Association of Australia. Celebrating its 25th anniversary this year, the Association is gearing up to host its annual national conference in its spiritual 'home' state of South Australia from May 14 – 16. The conference theme of 'Leading Career Development — Stories of Change' reflects on how the continuous advancement in technology and changing jobs and workplaces impact on career transitions through the life span of an individual and give focus to the use of social media and technology in career development practice.

With unemployment rising and economic instability continuing in Australia due to the loss of the local car manufacturing industry by 2017 and the gradual downturn of the mining and resources sector, it is important for our Career Development practitioners to be prepared for what is to come and to be able to navigate the changing landscape. Our 25th anniversary conference will provide plenty of opportunity to discuss these challenges, opportunities that the future will bring, as well as offer a chance to reflect on the original vision of the Association, where we have done well and where we can make improvements in the next 25 years. With a range of well-regarded keynote speakers joining us — including Boston College's Professor David Blustein, Professor Wendy Patton from the Queensland University of Technology, and business leader and former Aid worker Andrew MacLeod — we are superbly placed to address some of these important issues.

We are also looking forward to celebrating the achievements of the Association and its members! If you are planning on making the trip over to Australia, maybe en route to Hawaii for the APCDA conference, we would be delighted to welcome you to CDAA's birthplace. We look forward to helping you experience some of South Australia's unique natural beauty, award-winning food and wine, and eclectic arts scene.

2014 will also see the CDAA deliver another round of workshops under the 'Where the Jobs Are' initiative. Last year, the Association was contracted by the Australian Federal Government to deliver 100 workshops all around the country to improve the ability of career development professionals, and representatives from local government, parent associations and regional industry to locate, identify and interpret high-quality labour market information to assist others with career planning decisions. Contracting with 15 of our members to facilitate the workshops, more than 40 have now been delivered, with great success. High demand has constantly seen workshops at full capacity and in several cases, additional workshops have been scheduled to cope with high demand of individuals wanting to participate. The remaining workshops will all be delivered before the end of the year, and the Association is expecting to easily exceed the target of 2000 participants. The workshops give practitioners important tools to assist their clients more effectively. As the job market continues to grow tighter, having a sound understanding on how to access and use relevant labour market information will become more and more important. For more information on the 'Where the Jobs Are' project, please visit our website via this link:

And Where Career Development has come from ...

In the late 1940's, the Australian Government established the Commonwealth Employment Service (CES) as a labour exchange to assist Australia's growing workforce with employment and to help employers access the skills they needed. Australia's migration program in the 1950's saw rapid population growth and major national infrastructure projects were built. The CES played an expanding role in providing careers advice to job seekers and were the first government managed and established specialist provider. Roles such as youth contact officers were established to work with Careers teachers in schools and to deliver structured programs around careers information and advice. Other sectors such as Universities also had established Careers Advisory Services.

As the Australian labour market deteriorated in the early 1980's and recession gripped the country, the CES was restructured and Youth Access Centres were established to complement the network of Careers Reference Centres in each capital city. The Youth Access Centres were to play a role in providing information and advice as well as developing outreach programs to disengaged young people. In fact, while working in a Youth Access Centre in Adelaide in 1988, Chris Summers arranged a meeting of careers providers from schools and universities. Participants at this 1989 meeting formed the Career Development Association of Australia. Chris is a special guest at this year's conference to see how well the Association has worked over the last 25 years and if we are meeting our objectives as a professional member organisation.

The CES function was terminated in 1998 and contracted services were then delivered by community and private organisations and have a contracted responsibility to provide careers related services. With the disbanding of the Youth Access Centres, however, a gap was created that contracted services have not been able to completely fill. Schools still play a crucial role in careers service delivery but there is no national standard of delivery and teaching staff are often burdened with other responsibilities which detract from their role as careers specialists. In an effort to address this gap, the Commonwealth Government established My Future as a national careers web portal. The portal is currently being reviewed.

Over the last decade the Career Industry Council of Australia has developed and promoted national Standards for Career Development practitioners and these standards are the basis for which Careers professional bodies assess their members against their Continuing Professional Development. There is a network of State based Careers Associations for careers teachers, a national body for practitioners in Universities, as well as specialist peak bodies in rehabilitation, employment service delivery and recruitment. A network of Industry Skills Councils develops training packages and qualifications in Australia, and the training qualifications covering career development, employment and disability services are managed by the Community Services and Health Skills Council. These qualifications are at Certificate and Diploma level and complement a range of University post-graduate qualifications.

The Career Development Association of Australia has around 1500 members and is the largest professional member association. Our members work in private practice as well as schools, universities, employment services, disability and rehabilitation as well as in Government and industry. The recent change of national Government in Australia now provides a range of challenges for Careers Associations and professional bodies. The main issue is to ensure that the Government in its quest to manage the national budget in difficult circumstances does not lose sight of the important role that career development practice plays in meeting workforce development needs and contributing to overall economic productivity. The challenge also is to ensure that the Association meets the needs of its members and plays a role both on the national and international stage. We look forward to providing APCDA members with further updates.

Best wishes from down-under!

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