Log in

Read the latest career development news from the Asia Pacific region. Join our group
Asia Pacific Career Dev Assoc
April 2019
Natalie Kauffman, Editor
Click here for Bios of APCDA Board Members
President's Message
by Carla S. Siojo

Are you gearing up for your trip to Vietnam?

The 2019 APCDA Conference at RMIT in Ho Chi Minh City offers an exciting collection of high-quality presentations and is attracting a lot of first-time attendees. I would like to thank the Vietnam Organizing Committee for working hard with our APCDA Staff on the details to plan a fun conference with lots of extras. We will have book signing for the new book Career Theories and Models at Work: Ideas for Practice. All three editors: Nancy Arthur (University of Calgary), Roberta Neault (Life Strategies) and Mary McMahon (University of Queensland) will be available to sign your copy. Tours of the RMIT Career Center and a Lion Dance performance during the Reception are in the works. Optional activities and other tours are filling up. APCDA staff administrator, Emily Lizada, is working hard on a conference App, which will allow all conference attendees to communicate instantly. Announcements about last minute changes, arranging meetings with other attendees, selecting which presentation to attend and requests for emergency assistance will all happen on your cell phone.

At our recent Board and Officers' Meetings, we discussed ways of working with organizations that are specific to one country or area, which we are calling "local" organizations. We need to work closely with local organizations because APCDA operates in English and local organizations operate in the many languages used in our multi-national region. I have formed the Local Organizations Relationships (LOR) Taskforce to set guidelines for ways of working together. Some local organizations are interested in joint memberships and participating in local events. Others are asking for accreditations of local training programs. Since there are many experts in career planning services among our APCDA members, we believe we can and should be helpful in reviewing local programs and recognizing those which offer high quality training.

Kudos to our Program Committee! Thanks to their efforts, the past six months of our webinar series has been very successful with excellent attendance. After a short break, we will resume in July with a new line-up. Our Bylaws and Policies Committee is crafting Post-Restructuring Bylaws to establish a coherent new structure. Our Glossary Project Work Group is developing new language versions which are nearing completion. Our Membership Committee has conducted two New Member Orientations and our APCD Journal editors are working hard on the next issue (which will hopefully be out in April).

Thanks to Bob Athwal and Tom Devlin, founders of the Global Career Services Summit (GCSS). Soonhoon Ahn, APCDA Founding President, Yevgeniya Kim, APCDA Kazakhstan Country Director, and I participated at this year's GCSS held in March in Toronto, Canada. The Summit, a unique by-invitation-only forum, was hosted by Ryerson University and University of Toronto and brought together Directors and Heads of Career Centers from top Universities and Colleges worldwide to engage in problem solving, sharing of best practices and co-creating new approaches to equip students to thrive as they jumpstart their future in this highly digitized, fast-changing world. Through structured workshops, themed presentations and small group interactions, the Summit aimed to achieve the following objectives:

  • Sharing observations and insights about the ever-changing world of career education services.
  • Discussing the challenges and opportunities which are central to the successful delivery of career services for tomorrow's students and employers.
  • Striving to acquire an appreciation and understanding of the similarities as well as differences of career services worldwide.
  • Providing a venue to build a global network of leaders in career education.

With the limited number of participants, the setting was intimate and engaging which enabled interactive discussions pertaining to career education and areas of concern for their institutions and student bodies from a leadership standpoint. Each day was capped with sumptuous dinners in different restaurants. Optional tours of the Ryerson and University of Toronto Career Education Centers also were available.

"Xin chao!" I am looking forward to seeing all of you in May!

Back To Top

When Career Theories Meet Human-Centered Design
by Ella Choi and Jeremiah Wong

Singapore is a tiny metropolitan city well-known for topping the charts in many indicators such as health, education, infrastructure and economic competitiveness. Amidst a commendable 2.1% unemployment rate, the average Singaporean puts in about 45 hours a week at work to support the nation's growth. Underlying this however, is a growing concern that nearly half (45%) of the Singaporeans in employment face burn-out, dissatisfaction and low engagement levels (Job Street, 2017). With an economy undergoing rapid change, the need for career advising has never been greater.

Against this backdrop, Workforce Singapore redesigned its career centers in 2017 to build a service model based on sound career development theories, meshed with a needs-based approach to ensure that services are effective and relevant to the jobseekers. Under the redesigned "Careers Connect", its personalized career services, branded as the CARE360 package, is undergirded by five principles:

  1. A human-centered design approach which focuses on research into the jobseeker's psychological state and career readiness; supported with ideation and prototyping techniques (Stickdorn, Schneider, Andrews, & Lawrence, 2011)
  2. An emphasis on job-fit through well-informed career decision-making, beginning with a good understanding of (a) one's self and (b) the environment (Parsons, 1909; Walsh & Holland, 1992)
  3. A triaged service model that recommends the right level of support and programmatic interventions to the jobseeker, depending on their readiness level (Sampson, 2017)
  4. Alignment of interventions to market realities in the local context, including understanding of the technological and cultural shifts in the way hiring is conducted
  5. The digitalization of services through a blended, hi-tech and hi-touch approach, using interactive content and technology coupled with personalized human interventions to support jobseekers and extend the reach of services

Career Catalyst (CARE360)
Structured Career Coaching to achieve job search goals

For unemployed professionals who have been job hunting for months, job search can be frustrating, complex and seemingly futile.

Career Catalyst, a structured and modular, career coaching program, breaks down the job search process into 4 actionable steps. Adapted from the CASVE cycle (Sampson, Reardon, Peterson, Lenz, 2004), jobseekers are guided to make wise career decisions through 4 stages:

  1. Know Yourself: Gain awareness into one's Values, Interests, Personality and Skills (VIPS), which is founded on Holland's six personality types, Jung's Myer Briggs personality models, and Knowdell's Career Values and Motivated Skills. With VIPS, the individual's life narrative is strengthened, and through coaching and career construction, is transformed into a coherent career story.
  2. Explore Options: Gather insights into job opportunities through conducting in-depth job and occupational research, while leveraging on the national skills frameworks which codify the essential skills and competencies for each job.
  3. Develop Strategies: Translate one's VIPS and career story into a differentiated personal brand, and personified through one's résumé, interview and networking interactions.
  4. Take Action: Implement one's job search action plan through targeted online job applications and leveraging one's networks.

Career Roadmap to guide jobseekers through the 4 stage process

Career Activator (CARE360)
Familiarizing with the work environment to make an informed decision

Jobseekers touring the work environment at a healthcare company
While many blue-collared workers can land a job fairly quickly in Singapore, several struggle to stay in a job due to a weak understanding of the job role and work conditions.

Career Activator, which gathers interested jobseekers on a learning journey to a hiring company's workplace, enables them to learn more about the job tasks, work environment and skills required to make informed career decisions. This form of career decision-making is hinged on the Trait and Factor theory (Parsons, 1909) and Person Environment Congruence (Walsh & Holland, 1992), which requires a good understanding of self and an understanding of the occupation to identify a good job fit.

Career Recharger (CARE360)
Career Counseling to stay positive in the face of setbacks

Across the globe, job loss can severely impact an individual's financial status, social and family relationships, and even one's personal identity. Singapore is no exception. In a fast-paced society that prides itself on achievements and status, prolonged unemployment can lead to stress, anxiety and even depression.

"After losing my job, I really felt like I was nothing... It was emotionally draining, sending out 10 job applications a day and not hearing back from anyone… With a wife and 2 children to support, I was slowly burning through my savings"-- Thoughts frequently shared from unemployed Singaporeans in their 40s - 50s.

Career Recharger, a 1-to-1 Career Counseling Program, equips jobseekers with a positive mindset and the needed self-efficacy to focus on their job search efforts. With roots in Person-Centered Therapy (Rogers, 2012) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Beck, 2011), Career Recharger looks holistically into the client's background, family's genogram and career needs, and seeks to achieve balance and equilibrium, in order to regain ownership of the client's life again. The program works through the following 4 stages:

  1. Know the stressors: The counselor establishes rapport with the client through unconditional positive regard, guiding the client to draw out and reflect on their lifeline, and understand what triggers one's emotions and behaviors.
  2. Identify coping strategies: Recognize unhelpful patterns of thinking, and identify ways to reframe one's negative thoughts.
  3. Craft an action plan: Nudge the client to write down and commit to the 'next steps' of their job search, through crafting a personalized action plan that outlines both short and long-term goals.
  4. Celebrate the progress: Guide clients to see the job search process as a series of progressive milestones, and celebrate the tiny successes that they have clocked to keep spirits high and motivated.

Career Energiser (CARE360)
Differentiate from the competition using job search techniques

With job openings today receiving 50 - 1,000 applications, the challenge for many jobseekers is in articulating what makes them different from other candidates, so that they stand out.

Career Energiser brings the contents and tips from regular 1-to-1 career coaching sessions to group facilitated workshops. These job search workshops are characterized by the following:

  1. Hands-on learning: Through on-the-spot résumé crafting, case studies, interview role-playing and mock networking sessions, jobseekers take away practical learning and tangible outcomes from the workshop.
  2. Group facilitation: Small class sizes (8-10 people) to encourage peer sharing of experiences, with active involvement of the group in contributing to learning points.
  3. Career technology: Jobseekers are exposed to new hiring tools such as Applicant Tracking Systems, video and chatbot interviews and how to overcome them. They also learn to adopt career tools as an enabler, such as resume scoring tools and AI-based job recommenders.

Jobseekers role-playing on the commonly asked interview questions

Career 360 (CARE360)
Networking to access hidden jobs

The career interventions above relate to preparing individuals with self-efficacy and job search techniques to be employable and marketable. However, employability without access to opportunities would be a futile effort. Such an impact is most felt by many jobseekers who face multiple rejections from employers, frustrated by the "black hole" of the online job application process. This is where networking comes in, forming the overall link between employability and job placement.

Most employers prefer to hire through direct referrals and networks, where an estimated 70-80% of the jobs are found through an individual's own network. Singapore is no exception. Through human-centered design and rapid ideation, Career 360 was designed to bridge this gap by gathering a group of like-minded jobseekers,

Jobseekers building their confidence during a speed networking session with employers
employers and industry experts from the same industry to spark connections. The program comprises 3 parts:
  1. Workshop on networking and elevator pitch skills to allow jobseekers to familiarize with the fundamentals of establishing professional career relationships.
  2. Industry expert sharing on hiring insights and technological trends in the industry to offer greater insights into the job role and provide a reality check for jobseekers.
  3. Speed networking session to encourage employers to go beyond the résumé and learn more about the candidates: who they are and what they believe in.

Established career theories, contextualized to the Singapore context and needs of the jobseeker, underpin our service design and delivery. As these continue to evolve, Careers Connect has charted the vision of setting the national standard for career services, so as to best meet the needs of our citizens.

Careers Connect: connecting career aspirations of individuals with the hiring needs of employers.

Reference List

Beck, J. S. (2011). Cognitive behavior therapy: Basics and beyond. Guilford press.

Low, Y.J (2018, Jan 22). Survey finds 45% of S'poreans unhappy at work in 2019. Today online. Retrieved from:

Ng, J.Y. (2016, Apr 20). Older PMETs hardest hit as layoffs increase across sectors. Today online. Retrieved from:

Rogers, C. (2012). Client Centred Therapy (New Ed). Hachette UK.

Sampson Jr, J. P., Lenz, J. G., Reardon, R. C., & Peterson, G. W. (1999). A cognitive information processing approach to employment problem solving and decision making. The Career Development Quarterly, 48(1), 3-18.

Sampson, J. P., Reardon, R. C., Peterson, G. W., & Lenz, J. G. (2004). Career counseling and services: A cognitive information processing approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Brooks/Cole.

Sampson Jr, J. P., Peterson, G. W., Reardon, R. C., & Lenz, J. G. (2000). Using readiness assessment to improve career services: A cognitive information?processing approach. The Career Development Quarterly, 49(2), 146-174.

Stickdorn, M., Schneider, J., Andrews, K., & Lawrence, A. (2011). This is service design thinking: Basics, tools, cases (Vol. 1). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Tang, L. (2018, Dec 24). The Big Read: Breaking Singapore's workaholic culture. Today Online. Retrieved from:

Walsh, B. W., & Holland, J. L. (1992). A theory of personality types and work environments.

Back To Top

Ella Choi is a Career Development Facilitator from Singapore, and has been designing career services and policies for the past 3 years. She believes in innovation through intentional design, and hopes to reorganize the job search process from one that is stressful, frustrating and complicated to one that is meaningful, understood, and easily navigable by the jobseeker. You can reach her at

Jeremiah Wong is an NCDA Certified Career Services Provider (CCSP) and Global Career Development Facilitator (GCDF) from Singapore. He has been career coaching and building capabilities for career practitioners for the last 8 years. His passion is in raising the capabilities of career practitioners in Workforce Singapore, to enable more actualized individuals to land fulfilling careers. You can reach him at

Back To Top

Activities of the Career Development Association of the Philippines (CDAP) from May 2018-January 2019
by Prof. Lucila O. Bance, PhD, RGC, RPsy, APCDA Philippines Country Director and Ms. Sonia Mendoza, President CDAP

The 41st Mid-year Convention Workshop with the theme, "Spectrum for success: A career paradigm shift for Phillenials", took place from May 24-25, at the Hotel Benilde Maison De La Salle in Manila, Philippines.

The convention-workshop hoped to enhance the participants' awareness, knowledge and engagement regarding understanding and appreciating their inner strengths as career advocates, in charge of a people-caring business. Attendees were exposed and encouraged to reshape their own mind-set in relation to their program and product selling, utilizing the art of marketing oneself and resources. This further re-affirmed their own role/s in the landscape where they are actively engaged, be it in industry, government or academia. Furthermore, participants were introduced to advanced research in career education, guidance and development in order to enhance their role as research users or producers over time.

CDAP prepared a half day special session for leaders entitled "Coaching for Breakthrough" held at the College of Saint Benilde, Manila. Ms. Jane B. Montilla, immediate past HRD Director of Tupperware Philippines and a consultant (trained by Sir Bjorn Martinoff, a Global CEO Coach and awarded C-Level Executive Coach), conducted the workshop for approximately 20 selected participants last September 25th. The process focused more on current performance of coachees and how it would inspire growth and improvement for the future.

The Annual Convention, themed "Responding to the Career Challenges of the 21st Century Phillennials", took place January 23-24, 2019, at Hotel Benilde Maison De La Salle in Manila, Philippines. "The aging of the workforce and the concurrent advent of the millennials represent a major demographic and sociological phenomenon that can have dominant implications for organizations as a whole" (Bolser & Gosciej, 2015), globally. In the Philippines, one-third of the population is made up of Phillennials, they are the Filipino millennials who are 15 to 35 years old and are also major players in the 21st century global agency of digital business and communication processes. Amidst political noise and uncertainties at home, Filipino millennials or "Phillennials" remain among the most optimistic in the world (Deloitte, 2017). These millennials are an extra ordinary generation that will have an amazing impact (Kelly, 2017). They are more prepared to change to a different occupational field than older employees (Pyöria,et al, 2017). They grew up during the emergence of the digital age, with technological advancements not seen by previous generations (Bolser & Gosciej, 2015).

Back To Top

SFI Group of Companies and Kuder, Inc. Launch Partnership
by Richard P. Monteverde and John Dave E. De Vera

In order to address the needs and concerns of the Philippine's human capital development, the SFI Group of companies partnered with Kuder, Inc. to implement a full-scale national career development strategy for the country. The partnership was launched at a press conference held on March 20, 2019 in Quezon City.

The partnership aims to address issues and concerns for the following needs:

  1. provide basic career services by connecting clients with professionally trained career practitioners
  2. carefully disseminate and utilize career and Labor market information
  3. provide educational curriculum to the developing Filipino workforce in alignment to what is needed by industry
  4. respond to the challenges of employability and career Readiness of Filipinos by strengthening the linkage to key government agencies.

The press conference included remarks from Ms. Gina Jusay, Managing Director of SFI Career Center; Mr. Luis Alberto Anastacio, President and CEO of SFI Group of Companies; Mr. Bailey Rowell, Vice President of International Business Development of Kuder, Inc.; and Ms. Joyce Tham, Client Relation Manager of Kuder Singapore.

Back To Top

Careers That Were Not on Our Radar a Decade Ago
by Dr. Vandana Gambhir Chopra

According to World Economic Forum: Human Capital Outlook Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Report (2016), 65% of children entering primary school today will ultimately end up working in completely new job types that don't yet exist. Many careers and occupations that we see in today's job market did not exist 10, or even five, years ago. This fast-pace shift is going to go further faster due to rapid advances in the fields of robotics, driverless transport, artificial intelligence, biotechnology, advanced materials and genomics.

From wealth managers to data analysts and artificial intelligence programmers, the following is a collection of upcoming future careers that are going to be in demand.

1. Data Scientists

Data scientists are big data wranglers. They take an enormous mass of messy data points (unstructured and structured) and use their formidable skills in math, statistics and programming to clean, massage and organize them. Then they apply all their analytic powers - industry knowledge, contextual understanding and skepticism of existing assumptions to uncover hidden solutions to business challenges. Today's companies are moving away from using simple statistical analysis and using artificial Intelligence and deep learning to predict and personalize recommendations at an individual level. It is one of the fastest growing fields in India.

2. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Programmers

Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. Some of the activities computers with artificial intelligence are designed for include Speech recognition, Learning, Planning and Problem solving.

3. Wealth Managers

Wealth managers provide financial services, investment advice, tax and accounts services, retirement and other plans to their clients. Wealth managers are engaged to give client-centered advice that best suits their client's portfolio needs. Wealth management helps to enhance the financial situation of an individual or a company. A wealth manager develops a plan to maintain and increase wealth for a client by meeting on regular basis to discuss goals and performances as well as to re-balance financial portfolios.

4. Sustainability Experts

They are consultants who analyze the way an organization runs, the energy it consumes, and the waste it produces, and they find ways to bring the organization closer to sustainability. Many fashion companies are prioritizing sustainability and putting sustainable business models at the heart of their organizations. Their function is to ensure that the company is doing whatever they can to integrate sustainable sourcing and environmentally friendly practices.

5. Augmented & Virtual Reality Experts

Augmented reality works by providing a copied view of reality, which can then be altered and changed using computer-generated sensory input. From film and video games, to architecture and therapy, this technology allows designers to create new, immersive experiences that will transform the way things are built. Augmented Reality Architects play a big part in the creation of new products and structures.

6. Certified UAV Pilots

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), or drones, could range from full-sized planes to something small enough to fit in one's hand. Drone pilot jobs are growing in demand at companies across the globe. Legacy giants and startups are scouting full-time drone pilots, often referred to as drone operators, as well as flight engineers. These innovative companies are staffing internal UAV and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) programs, as well as a vast array of emerging drone-based products and services.

7. Education specialists.

Educational specialists evaluate and provide recommendations to improve curriculum planning, individual lessons and teaching methods at one or more grade levels. They also help coordinate and communicate expectations and progress among students' parents/guardians, guidance counselors and teachers.

8. Nutrition and Health Specialists

Certified nutrition specialists counsel people on maintaining healthy diets and lifestyles. They also organize nutritional programs that focus on promoting health and controlling diseases. Many of the individuals in this career work in hospitals and nursing homes. However, some of these specialists are self-employed, which sometimes offers more flexibility in work hours but may also require working weekends and evenings in order to meet the needs of their clients' schedules.

9. Blockchain Specialists

Bitcoin is the world's first revolutionary cryptocurrency as well as a digital payment system invented by an unknown programmer, or a group of programmers, under the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin today is widely used in many countries as a medium of payment and exchange. With bitcoin becoming the rage globally, industry experts expect this field to become a massive job creator. Blockchain is the technology that runs Bitcoin.

10. Mental Health Professionals

A mental health professional is a health care practitioner or community services provider who offers services for improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders. The aim of a mental health professional is to co-create a relationship where both professional and client interact with each other to reach a mentally healthy state. Psychologists, therapists, clinical social workers and psychiatrists are all mental health professionals. These individuals were the forefront brigade to develop the community programs, which today may be referred to by names such as supported housing, psychiatric rehabilitation, supported or transitional employment, sheltered workshops, supported education, daily living skills, affirmative industries, dual diagnosis treatment, individual and family psychoeducation, adult day care, foster care, family services and mental health counseling.

The previous list is just a snapshot of some of the New-Gen careers. Many new occupations will likely emerge based on what explorers and fun-minded visionaries imagine as being part of humanity's best future.

(Acknowledgment: I would like to acknowledge my student, Ms. Somya Tondon, who helped me in compiling this list.)

Back To Top

Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) Launches Revised Professional Standards
Agnes Banyasz

The Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) is the peak body for the Australian Career industry. CICA's members are the 10 national and state level Career Development Associations. The inaugural Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners were launched in 2006, fully implemented in conjunction with CICA's Member Associations by January 2012 and heralded an important milestone for the career industry in Australia; outlining the minimum requirements needed by Australian Career Development Practitioners. Their launch was a significant step forward in professionalizing the career development industry and providing confidence to stakeholders for the delivery of career services.

In late 2017, all CICA Member Associations agreed to review the Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners. The review of the Core Competencies and Specialised Competencies of the Professional Standards ensured that those entering the profession are provided with skills and knowledge appropriate for contemporary career development practice.

The Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners are the systems and procedures that define the career industry, its membership and services. By recognizing the skills and knowledge required of Career Development Practitioners, the Professional Standards guide entry into the field by providing a foundation for training and qualifications.

The key elements of the Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners are:

  • Terminology
  • Membership of the Profession
  • Code of Ethics
  • Entry-Level Qualifications
  • Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
  • Competency Framework that informs the development of entry-level qualifications.

While internationally, the terms "career development" and "career guidance" have been used synonymously, "Career development" was adopted in 2006 as the overarching term in the Australian career industry. In the Glossary of Terms listed at the end of the Professional Standards document, it is defined as, '[t]he process of managing life, learning, work, leisure, and transitions across the lifespan in order to move towards a personally determined future.'

The CICA Competency Framework contains Core Competencies and Specialised Competencies. Core Competencies are the skills, knowledge and attitudes required by all Career Development Practitioners regardless of their work setting. These are:

  • Career development theory
  • Labour market information
  • Communication and interpersonal skills
  • Ethical practice
  • Technology, information and resources
  • Professional practice application

Specialised Competencies are the additional skills, knowledge and attitudes that may be required by some Career Development Practitioners to undertake specific career development roles or cater for the needs of specific client groups. Appropriate training must be undertaken to develop the Specialised Competencies. These are:

  • Career assessment
  • Career counseling
  • Program delivery
  • Working with diverse clients
  • Project management
  • Employer liaison
  • Research skills

The full text of the CICA Professional Standards for Australian Career Development Practitioners can be accessed here:

A series of webinars on Professional Standards will focus on each of the Core Competencies and Specializations. The cost of each webinar is $18 USD. The dates and topics are:

Back To Top

Applying Theory to Career Development in Schools
by Dr. Catherine Hughes, Grow Careers, Australia

Career development spans infancy to post-retirement (Hartung, 2013; Super, 1990). It refers to the process managing life, learning and work over the life course (Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs, 2009). It is widely understood that the world of work is experiencing unprecedented change, making the nature of work in the future uncertain and unpredictable. This highlights the importance of providing career development programs and services in schools. Firstly, career development programs in schools help young people to successfully cope with societal expectations about preparing for and adapting to the work role (Super, 1990). Secondly, today's school students will need to adapt to multiple transitions across many jobs over the life course (Savickas, et al., 2009). Career development programs and services for all students is one way to ensure that the nation's youth are equipped to effectively self-manage their career as they respond to a lifetime of career transition and change.

Theories of career development guide career development practitioners in the selection of career interventions, their content and delivery. The vocational problems addressed and the populations served are key criteria in determining the usefulness of a theory as a guide to practice (Richardson, Constantine, & Washburn, 2005; Savickas, 2002). While acknowledging the usefulness of all career theories of relevance to young people, the five career theories initially listed and then summarized below support school career development practitioners in providing developmentally appropriate, concrete, socially conscious, and contemporary programs and interventions that prepare students to self-manage their career in an uncertain and changing world of work.

  1. Life-span, life-space theory (Hartung, 2013; Super, 1990)
  2. Theory of vocational personalities and work environments (Holland, 1997)
  3. Theory of circumscription and compromise (Gottfredson, 2005)
  4. Cognitive information processing theory (Sampson, Reardon, Peterson, & Lenz, 2004)
  5. Career construction theory (Savickas, 2013)

1) Life-span, Life-space Theory

Life-span, life-space theory is concerned with five stages of career development (Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance and Decline), the vocational development tasks that individuals encounter at each career stage, processes for managing these vocational development tasks, the social context in which career development occurs, self-concept and the interactions between life-span, life-space and self-concept.

Life-span, life-space career theory helps school students to understand how to prepare for making and implementing career decisions during the school years and beyond. Life-span, life-space career theory guides career development practitioners in designing developmentally appropriate career interventions that are aligned with the stage of career development of students (Growth or Exploration) and current and impending vocational development tasks. Interventions should also take into account the life roles relevant to school students' lives and their potential influence on factors such as career maturity, career adaptability and career choice readiness, as well as helping students to clarify their vocational self-concepts.

2) Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

Person-environment fit theories such as Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments help school students to understand the relationship between self and occupations. Holland's six vocational personality and work environment types provide a language and a structure to articulate this relationship. Person-environment fit theories help students to solve problems about identifying congruent occupations and exploring post-school options. The theory of vocational personalities and work environments assists career development practitioners to support students in identifying and exploring post-school options they are likely to find satisfying.

3) Theory of Circumscription and Compromise

This career theory reminds us of the importance of career interventions that challenge gender stereotypes in occupations and interventions that raise aspirations. According to the theory, children as young as 6-8 years of age start to reject occupations that are perceived to be incompatible with their gender identity. Further, by early adolescence young people are aware of an occupational hierarchy, have learned the types of occupations their families and communities reject on the basis of social prestige, and are aware of their intellectual ability relative to that of their peers (Gottfredson, 2005). These processes result in a zone of acceptable occupational alternatives, excluding occupations perceived to be of the wrong sex type, occupations perceived to be academically too demanding and occupations inconsistent with perceived social standing. This means that without intervention, many students may be unwilling to explore non-traditional career and course options.

4) Cognitive Information Processing Theory

Cognitive information processing theory is concerned with the knowledge base required for effective career problem-solving and decision-making, information processing skills that facilitate the transformation of self-knowledge and knowledge about learning and work options and the world of work into meaningful and satisfying career decisions. The skills learned through the cognitive information processing models prepare students for making good career decisions throughout life whenever they encounter career transitions (Peterson, Sampson, Lenz, & Reardon, 2002). Cognitive information processing career theory has turned its attention to practical issues such as how to deliver cost-effective career services that meet the career development needs of all students in contexts such as schools where the number of students to serve is large compared to the number of full-time equivalent career development practitioners (Sampson, Reardon, Peterson, & Lenz, 2004). This approach enables schools to align career interventions and intensity of career development practitioner support to the level of career choice readiness of students, resulting in a cost-effective approach to school career service delivery that neither over-serves nor under-serves students and uses career development practitioner resources where they are needed most.

5) Career Construction Theory

Career adaptability is an important construct from career construction theory. Career adaptability is comprised of self-regulation strengths that individuals can draw on to solve career problems and cope with the demands of vocational development tasks, work traumas and career transitions (Savickas, 2002, 2012). These self-regulation strengths include a concern about one's vocational future, a belief that one has some personal control over it by exploring, refining and deciding, attitudes of curiosity expressed by exploring self and possible future learning and work scenarios, and confidence in taking steps to pursue one's aspirations (Savickas, 2013). "Increasing a person's career adaptability … is a central goal in career education and counseling" (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012, p. 663), and therefore should be a central goal of school career development programs and services.

The career construction theory focus on career stories to explore life themes that can be projected into future learning and work possibilities can be blended with a more concrete person-environment fit approach for deeper learning and to enhance student understanding of the relationship between self and the world of work. The Integrative Structured Interview (McMahon & Watson, 2012) is a useful tool for this purpose. After completing activities where students explore their vocational personality, they reflect on the results and convey small stories about their assessed vocational personality profile and its meaning within the context of their life and for career possibilities for the future.


Career development is lifelong and therefore it is appropriate that individuals are exposed to career development support throughout life. For this reason, it is important that schools deliver career development programs and services to all students. Further, providing career development programs and services in schools is one way that nations can equip students with the career self-management skills to enable them to respond appropriately to multiple career transitions throughout life. Theories of career development serve as a guide for schools to construct developmentally appropriate career interventions to equip today's students with the career self-management skills they will need for the future world of work.


Gottfredson, L. S. (2005). Applying Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise in career guidance and counseling. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.). Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 71-100). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Hartung, P. J. (2013). The life-span, life-space theory of careers. In S. B. Brown & R. W. Lent (2013). Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (2nd ed.), pp. 83-113. Hoboken: NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (2009). The Australian Blueprint for Career Development, prepared by Miles Morgan Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. Accessed 23 March 2019 [Online] Available at:

McMahon, M. & Watson, M. (2012). Telling stories of career assessment. Journal of Career Assessment, 20, 440-451.

Peterson, G. W., Sampson, J. P. Jr. Lenz, J. G., & Reardon, R. C. (2002). A Cognitive information processing approach to career problem solving and decision making. In D. Brown (Ed.). Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 312-369). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Richardson, M. S. (1993). Work in people's lives: A location for counseling psychologists. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40, 425-433.

Richardson, M. S., Constantine, K., & Washburn, M. (2005). New directions for theory development in vocational psychology. In W. B. Walsh & M. L. Savickas (Eds.), Handbook of vocational psychology (3rd ed., pp. 51-83). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sampson, J. P., Peterson, G. W., Lenz, J. G., & Reardon, R. C. (1992). A cognitive approach to career development and services: Translating concepts into practice. The Career Development Quarterly, 41, 67-74.

Sampson, J. P., Reardon, R. C., Peterson, G. W. & Lenz, J. G. (2004). Career counseling & services: A cognitive information processing approach. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole - Thompson Learning.

Savickas, M. L. (2002). Career construction theory. In D. Brown (Ed.). Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 149-205). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Savickas, M. L. (2012). A paradigm for career intervention in the 21st Century. Journal of Counseling and Development, 90, 13-19.

Savickas, M. L. (2013). Career construction theory and practice. In S. B. Brown & R.W. Lent (2013). Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (2nd ed., pp. 147-183). Hoboken: NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Savickas, M. L. & Baker, D. B. (2005). The history of vocational psychology: Antecedents, origin, and early development. In W. B. Walsh & M. L. Savickas. Handbook of vocational psychology (3rd ed., pp. 15-50). Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum.

Mark L. Savickas, M. L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J-P, Duarte, M. E., Guichard J., Soresi, S., Van Esbroeck, R., van Vianen, E. M. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 239-250.

Savickas, M. L. & Porfeli, E. J. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 661-673.

Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown and L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (2nd ed., pp. 197-261). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Super, D. E., Savickas, M. L., & Super, C. M. (1996). The life-span, life-space approach to careers. In Brown, D. & Brooks, L. Career Choice and Development (3rd ed.), CA: Jossey-Bass Inc., pp121-178.

Back To Top

Emily Lizada Wins Excellence Award

Congratulations to Emily Lizada!

The Board of Trustees of the Ateneo de Manila University selected Emily to be the recipient of the Excellence Award for Professionals for school year 2018-2019. The Excellence Awards are given annually to deserving Ateneo employees. The award recognizes her meritorious work performance as a Career Advisor and her outstanding service in furthering the mission of the Ateneo de Manila University of training men and women to serve others, forming people to develop their talents to the utmost, and challenging them to the highest levels of service. To not just seek the good, but the greater good. In Emily's work on the Ateneo Formators Group, she strives to improve the lives of her colleagues.

You have made us all proud, Emily! Keep up the good work.

Back To Top

Professor Danita Redd -- A Career Counselor in Higher Education

Why did I choose to become a Lifetime Member?

The work of APCDA is inclusive and relevant to today's world and the future. Its work covers the full socio-economic spectrum. Its projects are forward thinking and focused on the wellbeing of people. I have been particularly excited to be on the team for the APCDA's Glossary Project.

My work in our profession has been developing over three decades.

I have been a counselor in higher education in the United States for more than three decades. I earned a Master of Arts in Counseling and Guidance (with a focus in higher education and student affairs) because I believed that higher education and career development were essential tools for socioeconomic equity.

During my last two years of undergraduate education and two years in graduate school, I was student staff in the university's counseling and testing center where the psychometrist trained me to administer and interpret career assessments. I also worked as a teaching assistant (TA) and tutor supervisor in the learning skills center.

After working a few years as a career and academic counselor in higher education, I quit my job to study brain science and chemistry at two different universities. I hoped to specialize in STEM and Career Counseling.

I specialize in Community College, STEM and Career Counseling.

When I decided to return to fulltime work as a counselor in higher education, I found a position that would allow me to express myself exactly as I wanted. For the last 26 years, I have been a community college (higher education) STEM, Health Sciences, and Career Counselor. In one-to-one appointments and in career development and life planning classes, I help students. When not working for my campus, I have volunteered in Latin America, mostly in Mexico City. My interests include helping people recover from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), serving as an ambassador for Shared Hope International that rescues and helps victims of human trafficking (especially sexual slavery) and working with the Friends National Committee of Legislation. In Mexico City, I have volunteered at Casa de los Amigos, a guesthouse that serves as a refuge for people in peril from around the world and place for educators and journalists to engage in meaningful research and conversations.

I am a Lifelong Learner.

  • My employer recently paid for me to complete my Certified Clinical Supervisor of Career Counseling (CCSCC) credential from the NCDA which helps me train my colleagues to use career development strategies in their counseling sessions with students.
  • I am currently a student in a year-long teaching excellence institute that has a focus on embedding career development materials across the curriculum.
  • I am also a fellow in a regional program that seeks to improve higher education instruction and student services for our clients who are at-risk/disenfranchised.
  • Due to a lifelong passion for the arts, social justice and integrating pop culture into career counseling, I am also preparing myself to embark on applying to a Ph.D. program in Humanities at a small private liberal arts university.
  • Across the last few years, I have presented at NCDA, IAEVG, CCDA and APCDA conferences.
  • As I continue my life journey, I realize I have much more to contribute to our world as an educator, volunteer and member of APCDA.

Back To Top

Invitation to the NCDA Conference

The National Career Development Association (NCDA) Conference will be held June 26 - 28 in Houston, Texas, USA. Ya'all come! Click here for a list of presentations and roundtables with an international flavor or offered by APCDA Board Members.

There are four events at the conference the have special relevance for APCDA members. The IAEVG-NCDA Symposium offers a time to think about the needs for career planning globally. This assessment of the needs in the many countries represented at NCDA will be enlightening and challenging. The International Reception follows, and is open to everyone who is not from the US plus the NCDA Board and members of the Global Connections Committee.

APCDA will hold a meeting on Thursday morning. This is a good place to make friends, ask questions about the conference, and get a short update on what is happening with APCDA. Then the Global Connections Committee meets and plans its activities for the coming year. Click here for more information or to register.

Wednesday, June 26, 2019
8:00 am - 5:00 pm IAEVG-NCDA Symposium
7:00 - 8:30 pm International Reception - by invitation only
Thursday, June 27, 2019
9:45 - 11:00 am APCDA Meeting
11:30 am - 12:30 pm Global Connections Committee Meeting

USA Country Director Rich Feller suggests three unique training options just before the NCDA conference.

  • Pre-Conference training in clinical supervision. This Houston pre-NCDA training program in Clinical Supervision for Career Counselors and Other Practitioners requires participants to commit to attending the full 45-hour training (23 hours over a 3-day period) plus complete 22 additional hours of practicum work submitting assignments and video-recordings via e-mail or other electronic methods. Training Schedule: Mon, June 24, 2019: 9:00 am - 5:00 pm, Tue, June 25 and 26, 2019: 8:00 am - 5:00 pm. Complete details are provided in the 2019 Clinical Supervision Application. Participants will receive 45 hours of continuing education contact hours and an NCDA completion certificate. This course costs $995 for NCDA members; $1095 for non-members and will satisfy the maximum current training portion for eligibility for State and other credentialing bodies in clinical supervision. In addition, participants will be eligible to apply for the NCDA Certified Clinical Supervisor of Career Counseling (CCSCC).
  • $100 Scholarship to attend Business Development and Marketing Training for Career Counselors and Coaches taught by Dick Knowdell. June 22, 2019 at the Hampton Inn Downtown Houston. Contact by June 1 for training details and information on how to receive the $100 off the $350 fee.
  • $250 Scholarship to attend Job & Career Transition Coach Training and Certification based on Dick Knowdell's Career Transition Process. June 23-25, 2019 at the Hampton Inn Downtown Houston. Contact by June 1 for training details and information on how to receive the $250 off the $1,095 fee.

Back To Top

IAEVG Conference in Czechia and Slovakia

The next Conference of the International Association of Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG) will be held in Brno, Czech Republic Sept 9-10 and Bratislava, Slovakia 11-13 September. Click here for the Call for Proposals.

If you are planning to attend and would like to be part of a panel presentation, please contact Marilyn Maze at She will seek a common theme for all who express an interest and submit an APCDA group proposal in which representatives from different countries present perspectives from each country.

Back To Top

Mirror, Mirror on the Wall . . .
by APCDA Newsletter Committee

Please take a moment to look in the mirror. If you see someone who works in higher ed, you may be an article author for APCDA's next themed newsletter, Career Development Challenges, Research and Best Practices with College/University Students Emphasizing the Employer Connection Regarding...

  • Employer Partnership Strategies
  • Internships and other 'hands-on' experiences
  • Successful Job Placement Programs

Wednesday, May 22, 2019 is the deadline for this next theme issue. A great big shout-out of thanks goes to our Australia Country/Regional Director, Agnes Banyasz, for suggesting the theme. Our APCDA Newsletter Committee is here to help you brainstorm and craft your submission, just email us at your ideas, thoughts and questions. We're here to help you make our next theme issue the best yet!

Back To Top

Copyright © 2019 Asia Pacific Career Development Association. All rights reserved.
Contact email:

You are receiving this message because you opted in at


Powered by Wild Apricot Membership Software